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The Hingol National Park is the largest National Park of Pakistan. It is located in parts of the districts Lasbela, Awaran and Gwadar in Baluchistan Province and covers a total area of 6,19,043 ha. It gets low rainfall between 100 to 200 mm per year. The Hingol River runs through the park and before disgorging into the Arabian Sea forms an estuary which provides habitat to migratory wter birds. It also provides habitat for a number of threatened and endangered species belonging to marine, estuarine and terrestrial fauna. The area is also habitat for flora suitable for arid and dry environments.
The Coastal Highway and the Bela Awaran Highway have enhanced the accessibility of the people of the area with Karachi, Gwadar, Lasbela and Quetta. However, the interior of the park is devoid of any road and other infrastruxcture. There is no transport service, and camesls provide the only means for mobility of people and commodities into and within the park. This has, to an extent, helped in conservation of biodiversity and wildlife in certain areas inside the park.
For long-term sustainability of biodiversity conservation activities, local communities are involved who live within or in close proximity to the borders as partners to serve as Custodian Communities (CCs). These communities are dependent on the park resources for their livelihood and survival, living in scattered settlements and not organized. To facilitate their active participation in management, both for watching their own interests with least and decreased interference in the bioverity and in becoming custodians of biodiversity conservation , it will be necessary to organize the village conservation committees (VCCs).Before embarking upon formation of these organizations,the implanting agency requires sufficient data on the local communities so that the present socio-economic status of the house holds and villages and their impact upon wildlife could be appraised in the beginning,and based on that, appropriatre micro plans could be drawn at their level and park management plan could be formulated with participation of all categories of stakeholders .it is found that available secondary data are not sufficient for use as input for intended micro planning exercise.
Survey plan and methodology.the baseline survey was carried out during September through desember 2005 in reprentative central and peripheral areas of Hingol national Park.The park area was divided into a number of zones and sub-zones,based on lavehood patterns and ecological characteristics.it was at first place divided into Inside –park zone comprising the 18 clusters of villages and the Buffer Zone comprising 6 clusters of villages .the insidepark area was divided into: Costal Zone East of Hingol River (3 clusters), Costal Zone West of Hingol River (3 clusters), Hingol Area below Nani Mandar (2 clusters), Central Hingol (4 clusters),Northern plains North of Phol Dhat (1 cluster), Drhun-Rodani Kacho Jhau Zone (1 cluster),Tranche Valley (2 clusters), Deko Beharo-Sarhad(1 cluster), Ballard Had(Sar Bhat-Maniji-Gurangatti 1 cluster), and Ladanderi-Jhau (1 cluster).
The survey covered all te 18 park clusters wich comprised 110 goths/ village, and the 6 buffer zzzone clusters which comprised 67 goths.
A survey produser was adopted for `for the baseline study. It involved 1) identification of villages for baseline survey, based on size and location of villages, and 2) condiuctiong of the actual survey. The adopted procedure provided for larger villages selection straightaway, and clustering of small settlements or Goths (comprising 1-10 households) into convenient geographical units for data collection.
The baseline survey covered a total of 786 households comprising a population of 4070. The coverage represents 63% of households and 65% population of the HNP area. From amongst the 24 clusters of Goths or villages, the baseline survey was conducted in 15 of which 3 are lolcated in the Buffer Zone, 6 in costal zone , 2 in Hingol Area below Nani Mandar , 1 in the northern plains North of Phol Dhat, 1 in Dhrun-Rodani Kacho in Jhau , and 1 in Tranche Valley.
The bufferzone population was covered by 18 % households or 16% populations.The largest buffer zone groups of the presumed rather uniform conditions in a phore valley were relatively well represented.
Demographic and Social Characteristics .Only a few of the settlements in the park are large villages with more than 100 households (e.g. Kund Malir, Ras Malan).the rest are small settlements compromising a few households, and most of them do not qualify to be called villages.Many of these small settlements are known by the names of the heads of the main households.These settlemants are convenienty called Goths in the area,many of whichkeep changing their locations because of moving sand dunes pheneomene and also for seasonlaoity in the avalibility of water and vegetataion. This characteristic is , however, not true for the coastal area settlementsj, which are more stable and populated.
As described above, for the purpose of reconnaissance survey the whole area was divided into 24 clusters of Goths/villages based on geopgraphical proximity of population and households spread in the park. On basis of the findings, it is estimated that the park area has a population of 5620 in 1,111 households averaging 5.1 per household. The buffer zone population is over 2,500 people in over 465 households. The Phore valley has by far the highest buffer zone population of about 2000 people.
The literacy rate among men in the coastal area (except Kund Malir) is 1.5%, while in Kund Malir it is 20%. In the interior park area it is less than 1%. Among women the literacy rate is zero throughout the area.
There are two government primary schools: one in Kund Malir and the other in Sangal. These schools admit boys only.
Apart from that, there are now eight schools in Park area in all the eight Village Conservation Committee (VCCs) having more than 300 schools. These schools not only admit boys but also girls.
The scattered households and small Goths offer little prospect for opening conventional type of primary schools in the area.
Language, ethnicity and sectarian situation:
The inhabitants of the park area speak Balochi, with the exception of the people living in Mouza Phore who speak Lassai, a local variant of Sindhi.
There are 12 tribes in the area. Among these, principal tribes area Dagarzai, Chanal, Angaria and Kurd.
The population comprises only Muslims, divided into two sects consisting of the majority Zikris and the minority Sunnis. The relations between the two are harmonious in the park area.
A centuries old Hindu pilgrimage site popularly known as Nani Mandar is located at Hinglaj within the park. Pilgrims from various parts of the country and from abroad gather there for four days in the month of April every year.
Marriages, arranged by parents, take place generally within the tribe and among relatives. In some villages, inter-tribe marriages are taking place.
Consent is not obtained from the bridegroom or the bride for marriage. In some villages, opinion of the bridegroom is reportedly taken.
Early marriage is norm throughout the park area. The marriage age for female is 12-16 years while for male is 15-20 years.
In most park villages, the brides get dowry – known as Labb – from their husbands, the range is wide between minimum Rs. 20,000 and maximum Rs. 2,50,000.
There is a practice of collective action called Bejjar to provide financial and material support to men for marriage.
Tribal and Social conflicts and their resolution process:
Inter-tribe feuds are few and far between now-a-days.
There is no jirga in the park villages.
The leadership of the park villages is vested with 2 Sardars who are involved by the villagers in resolving disputes and major decision-making.
These Sardars exert considerable influence on the society in the park area. Without taking them into confidence, any initative of the suthorities for local developemt or park resource conservation is not possible.
Minor social issues are resolved locally by the village elders
Family situation, housing and cooking:
The traditional joint family structure is prevalent pattern in the park area households. Within the household compound however, nuclear type of housing also emerges based on age and gender considerations.
The eldest male member of the household normally takes decisions on important matters. In the Goths which shift their location from one season to another, people use tents “Gedan” built from wooden poles and roofing with mazri palm mats.
In the settled villages, houses are made of mud and wood by the families particularly the wealthier amonst them.
For cooking, generally Tamarix and Acacia twigs and branches are used.
Women literacy is about zero.
Villages in the area have male dominated society. Women are not generally involved in decision-making process. However, elder women in the family are involved in consultation on major family decisions such as marriages in the family, settlement of disuputes, taking female patients to hospital, etc.
In some villages women are not consulted even when their children are married.
Women’s mobility outside home is limited to social visits, in the company of male members, within own Goth and nearby Goths. They sometimes visit Uthal, Bela and Awaran for treatment, and Hub and Karachi for treatment and attending marriage ceremonies.
Women’s do the hardest of the household activities: fetching water,feeding animals, collecting fuel wood, cooking food and looking after children. Water sources are water pools, open surface wells, sprng and Hingol River- located at a distance of 0.5-5.0 km from the settlements.in some villages, available water is brackish and unfit for drinking , but is drunk . In winter months, most villages suffer from water shortage.
Since Kerosene stove is not used and got dung is insufficient, there is heavy household dependence on tree branches (Tamarix, Acacia, etc.) as a fuel wood source.fuel wood collection from distances varying from 3 to 8 km takes 3-6 hours.sometimes children are also involved along with in the activity.
Women are deprived of minimum basic rights and facilities such as education and healthcare.the rate of literacy among women is almost zero.
The two BHUs in the park area have no treatment facilities for women.there is extremely high mother and child mortality in the area. The common health problems of women are kidney infection,jaundice, pre- and post-natal complications.
The common children diseases include diarrhea, malaria, eye infection and skin diseases. Incidence of diseases of girls is higher than in boys for about all diseases.
In only 3 of 15 villages, children were reportedly vaccinated and given drops against polio by Government Medical teams. This time, in April 2013, it was assured by Forest and Wildlife Department that such teams may reach in far flung areas.
When women fell sick, their first treatment is attempred by local quacks or through traditional methods. They are taken to hospitals or doctors, who are to be found far away from the villages or park area, only when their sickness becomes precarious.
Women also lack awareness about sanitation of house and rearing of infants. They have no exposure to the outside world.
Dependency on Park, Income and Poverty Levels
The households located in the interior areas of the park, compared with those in the coastal or buffer zone, have more dependence on the park resources for livelihood. The main pressures at present on the park resources include: habitat conversion and fragmentation, huntin, grazing, furel wood, competition for access to scarce water sources, pollution, introduction of exotic species and domestic animals.
In the coastal villaes there is heavy reliance on sea-products for subsistence.
Many villaes in the coastal belt and some in the interior have a major income from seasonal labour mainly in fisheries in Karachi, Winder, Dam, Ormara, Pasni, awadar, and boat makin in Kund Malir.
The households scattered in the plains and plateaus of the interior of HNP, on the other hand, rely mainly on livestock and rain fed ariculture, followed by cash labor from fishing.
Since most of these occupations are seasonal and unable to fulfill households needs for the whole year, most households are dependent on more than one income source . Sea fishing is carried out during September through April.
Agriculture activities are also seasonal and not carried out every year because of their total dependence on rainfall which does not occur every year.
In some parts of the park carriage of smuggled material witj camels has remained a source of earning for a number of households.income generated from this source is also known and hence cannot be accounted in the estimate of their income.
Based on the collected survey data, the average annual income figure for households was found to be Rs. 19,670, varying between Rs.11,600 and 24,100 an Dali Hinj and Kund Malir respectively.
In these villages , existence of morethan one earner in a household is a rarity. The anaylisis of overall village-level earners reveals presence of 1.0 earners per household on the average (713 earners in 703 households).
There is a presence of a significant portion of park households ( 12.4%) living in abject poverty who have no income and rely on charity.
The income level is higher where dependence on fishing as an occupation is more.
Cultivable landowing households account for 62% of villagers in the survey area,signifying presence of a large number (34%) of landless families. However, landlessness is most prevelant in a costal areas where people mainly rely upon income from fisheries. When excluding fisher folk villages the landlessness is still 22%. However, part of the livestock herders may not posses (agriculture) land they have free access to the common grazing areas.
Among the landowners,the average cultivable holding size was found to be 17.8 acers, varying between 3.6 acers (Kund Malir) and 69.2 acers (Sangal) among the survey villages had a few number of landowners (e.g., Sangal, Qasim Goth/ Lowari
Irrespective of landholding sizes and number of earning members, the large majority of households are poor as agricultural land is rain-fed and remains fallow year after year if it does not rain.
Many costal and inland villages have agricultural fields, which were developed through well-designed traditional water-harvesting systems. Most carry large old trees of Khand (prosopis), Acacia and Ber (Zizyphus), which provide for some extra fodder and fuel wood on a more permanent basis.
Village Infrastructure and Resources
All the billages are very poor in terms of infrasturute develppement. All bsic facilities eg telephone, electricity, health and education are lacking.
Opening of Mekran Coastal Highway has enhanced the accessibility of the people of the park area, but lack of motorable link road coupled with non-development of internal roads has stil kept the interior of the park area inaccessible as before. There are at present 5 dirt roads linking the villages from outside, eg a) Jhao-Bela Road to Tranch Valley – 90km b) Coastal Highway (Aghore Point) to Nani-Mandar – 12Km c) Mekran Highway to Sapat – 12Km d) Coastal Highway to Malan – 3Km and e) Jhao-Bela Road to Kukeri Bhent 34 Km.
Camels are still the only means of transportation for people and commodities in most of these areas.
Coastal villages are in a relatively better positioni for their accessibility to the highways as well as the sea.
The nearest town from the park is Uthal, the disritct headquarter of Lasbela District, at an average distance of 120Km. But travel to Hub (>150 Km) and Karachi (>190Km) is considered more convinent for buying necessary supplies, treatment of patients and other activities.
Among all the villages of the park, only Kund Malir and Umar Goth are fortune to have BHUs, but these are only capable to cater minor treatment needs of the local villagers as they are not attended by any doctor.
No medical camps or mobile teams visit the villages. Only polio teams cometimes visit the more conventintly located villages for vaccination. Malaria, typhoid, diarrhea, pneumonia and jaundice are the common diseases.
- Villages generally lack electricity. Kund Malir has been provided with a few wind mills by the PREC for production of electricity. Solar panels are widely being used now a days on large and small scales.
- There is no sewerage and drainage system in the villages. The cleanliness and hygienic condition of most of the villages is not satisfactory. Thre is general lack of awareness on cleanliness and sanitation.
- The Hingol River, streams and surface wells are the sources of drinking water. Water has to be fetched from long distances by the women members of the households.
- The level of possession of household goods such as radios and motorbikes in the villages also gives evidence of the villagers lack of exposure to the outside world. Radios are there in every village, but not in every household. There are a few TVs in Kund Malir only. Some houses in every Goth possess Motorcycles.
- Motorized 4-wheel vehicles are very rare. In coastal areas, several households own boats.
- There are some villagers in Tranch areas, for instance, who never came out of the Park area and never stepped in the highways passing by the park.
Land Use and Agriculture
An attempt was made to look into the land use patterns of villages, classifying into cultivable area, rangland and and forest area, during the household survey. Respondents were able to provide information on cultivable area and cultivated area in the villages, but unable to furnish information relevant to their rangland and forest areas. Collected data show that except Wadh Bandar all the villages have cultivated areas, which account for 52% of cultivable area of all the villages taken together . It appears that there was a general tendency on the part of the respondants to over-report on these data. Summary of responses from the villagers are as follows:
Almost a third of households in the park are landless .In Kund Malir and Sangal, a very high proposition of people are landless. However, in the present context of little utilization of land for agricultural production due to continuing drought for several years, the phenomenon of landlessness of households in most villages hardly bears any significance. Further more people use common seas for
Opportunities for agriculture as a major productive activity in the area are limited in the absence of irrigation. Present agricultural practices of the park inhabitants rely solely on rainfall that is seasonal and scanty.
In most of villages, rainwater harvest serves as the sorce of water for farming. Some villages use water from floods and runoff.
The limited water availability does not allow cultivation of food crops; the villagers grow sorghum, Jawar, Gwar and Mash as fodder, and castor oil as cash crop;
Farmers use both cattle and camels as draught animals; in some villages hired tractors coming from Bela, Uthal and Lakhra are also used for land preparation.
Livestock is the mainstay in the household economy of the inhabitants of the park, more particularly for those residing in the interior villages. In spite of under reporting by the respondents, the numbers given by them still manifest its importance in the kife and economy of the park residents. Specific findings are as follow:
Households generally keep five kind of livestock such as goat, sheep, camel, donkey and cattels for specifically different purposes.
Goat s are in highest number in every village, followed by sheep, for their high profitability and convertibility into instant cash and as a sourse of milk.
Camels and donkeys are used for carrying people and goods throughout the park area which is devoid of any motorable road network.
Both camels and cattle are used as drought animals, but the cattle having no utility transport means are more likely to be gradually reduced in number with the increased use of tractors particularly in the relatively accessible areas of the park in the future.
In the srvey area, Jogini Bhent village (Tranche) in the interior of the oark has the highest number of livestock (1530); while in Qasim Goth (Central Hingol) , average livestock holding per household is highest (43.4), followed by Noko Goth (Central Hingol) (34.4) and Daud Bhent (Tranche) (34.4).
The household survey data show that average number of livestock is 9.4, while the reconnaissance survey reveals the average for the whole park is 16 (under-reported in both cases).
In 12 of the 15 survey villages, cultivated fodders along with naturally grown trees and bushes are used fodders, and the remaining 3 villages rely exclusively on naturally grown trees and bushes for feeding livestock.
Most of the park villages are from grazing by visiting livestock of nomads. Exceptions are: Sapat-where nomads are other outsiders graze their livestock, Sarhadarea- grazed by cattle from outside the park, and Pucheri Valley- grazed by cattle coming from Tranche and Deokoh Valleys.
The common livestock diseases are diarrhea, live fluke, and foot and mouth diseases.
Livestock treatment is done by patent medicines in most villages, only a few of them used indigenous medicines or rely on natural treatment.
The livestock rearing activities including collection of fodder, and feeding, grazing and milking are carried out by women with the assistance of children.
Milk is not marketed, and no milk product is made.
In 13 of 15 serveyed villages, every household has been found to keep a flock of scavenging chickens, comprising 4-10 birds of indigenous origin. They serve the household needs of eggs and meat (partly).
Household And Social Aspects.
The characteristics of settlements show two basic patterns in the project area. In coastal and buffer zones, the settlements are larger, more compact and stable, and their characteristics are more akin to those of “normal” villages. Moreover, these villages have relatively lesser dependency on the park resources. On the other hand, in the central and other interior areas of the park the settlements comprise fewer households- mostly hutments.
These settlements are unstable and houses are temporary as they need to change their location according to seasonal changes in park resources on which they have relatively higher dependence. These small settlements are conveniently called Goths, named in most cases after main household heads. These Goths/villages (110 in total within the park) needed to be aggregated into a small number of clusters (18) to from convenient units for the baseline study as well as for future micro planning for project interventions. Another 6 villages clusters comprise the buffer zone goth/villages (total 122) most of which are located in the phore valley east of the park.
In the 18 clustered Goths/villages of the inside park area, there are 1,111 households comprised of a total of 6,240 people in 110 goth/villages. The buffer zone population comprises 4 village clusters with 122 goth/villages with 465 households and 1177 people east of Hingol River in the Sangal, Wadh Bandar-Aghore areas, and357 households with 1746 people west of Hingol river in kund malir and Malan areas . Another large population is located in the Tranche valley with 206 households and 1093 people . Concentrated villages are further found in central Hingol along the Hingol river banks in the Dandel, Chanai, Dhaloi areas with 130 households and 644people. The population in the northern plains north of Phol Dhat is scattered and small. The scatter of households and small Goths within the park zones, poses a great challenge to undertaking development activities there.
Brief Description of the Subproject area:
The Hingol national park (Hingol NP) is the largest National park in Pakistan. It is one of the 219 protected areas of Pakistan, and located in parts of the districts of Lasbela, Awaran and Gawadar in balochistan Province, and covers a total area of 619,043 ha. It gets low rain fall , varying from 100 to 200 mm per year. The Hingol River runs through the park and before disgorging into the Arabian sea from an estuary, which provides habitat to migratory water birds. It also provides habitat for a number of threatened and endangered species belonging to marine, esturine and terrestrial fauna, such as Marsh Crocodiles, Balochistan Urial, Ibex, Chikara, Olive Ridley, green turtle, Masheer fish, Houbara Bustard, Spot-billed Pelican, Dalmatian pelican, Eastern imperial Eagle, Plumbeous Dolphin, pangolin, Leopard,Hyena, Desert Wolf, Honey Nadger, etc. Outsiders visit the area for hunting. Flora of the area includes trees like Tamarix, kirri, Kand or jand, Kikar, acacia, Salvadora, Zizyphus, etc.
The notified park area (4 March 1997) is inhabited by about 1100 households or some 5600 people. They are living scattered in some 110 hamlets and villages of various sizes (locally known as Goths) . Morethan half this population is in the costal zone East of Hingol River in Sangal (21%) and West of Hingol river in kund malir and Malan (31%). Other populations are concentrated along the central Hingol river with adjacent Kundrach- nani mandar (15%), and the Tranch valley (19%). Population along the river Arra, Babro, Nal and Parken in the Northren plains, and Dhrun mountain and Rodani Kacho are thinly populated. Several valleys including Pachhri, Aryan, Maniji and Kullit have no population inside. The population of the buffer zone outside the park is largly concentrated in the coastal zone – Phore valley at south east with some 2000 people , only a minor part of which uses park resources. The park inhabitants, except the fishermen living in coastal area , almost entirely depends on the in land resources of the park. The area is utilized by them for livestock grazing, rainfed agriculture and fuelwood and drinking water collection and hunting. The households represent various tribal groups and sub groups called Degharzai, Chanal, Angaria, Kurd, Mangians, Umradi, etc. the inhabitants of park area spesk Balochi. The people living in Phore valley speak mainly Lassi (Sindhi).
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