Solved English Essays (For S.S.T General & S.S.T Science English Part)

List of Essays appeared in Past Papers of (S.S.T General & S.S.T Science Papers)

  1. Life is Struggle
  2. Should We Abolish Examinations / Examinations Serve no Useful Purpose
  3. The Most Interesting Book I have Ever Read
  4. Knowledge is Power
  5. A Stich in Time Saves Nine
  6. The Fruits of Harbor are Sweeter than Gifts of Future
  7. Votes should be Weighted not Counted
  8. My Idea of a Happy Life
  9. Effective Teacher’s Respond to the Needs of Students – Discuss
  10. Travelling in itself is an Education / Educational Value of Travelling
  11. I have Humanity, but I hate People
  12. Information is Power
  13. Teachers Lay Foundation of a Nation
  14. Importance of Mother Tongue in Schooling 
  15. Unemployment in Pakistan / Unemployment Among the Educated Youth; Its Causes and Cure
  16. Women Place in Our Society
  17. Environmental Pollution
  18. Corruption in Our Country / Effects of Corruption in Society
  19. A Moonlight Walk
  20. Journalism as a Profession
  21. Social Service in Modern Society
  22. The Advantages of Modern Technology
  23. Poverty
  24. Election Campaign
  25. Smoking is a Bad Habit
  26. My Last Day at School / College
  27. Annual Prize Distribution
  28. A Picnic Party
  29. Allama Iqbal as a Philosopher
  30. The Teacher who Changed My Life
  31. Do Right and Fear No Man
  32. Carrier as a Teacher
  33. Teacher as a Nation Builder
  34. Parents Vs. Professional Teacher
  35. Practical Life is the Most Efficient of All Teachers
  36. A Little Learning is a Dangerous Thing
  37. People Do Not Lack Strength; They Lack Will
  38. The Modern Press is a Great Public Education
  39. Life is Not worth Price We Pay for It.
  40. The Poor Man Makes the Best Use of the Utopia
  41. Disadvantages of Deforestation
  42. The Desire of Peace is as Old as the Idea of War
  43. Advertisement – It’s Advantages and Disadvantages
  44. Pakistan’s Role in the Prevention of International Terrorism
  45. Computer in the Service of Humanity
  46. Honesty Always Pays / Honesty is the Best Policy
  47. Man Never Satisfies with What he has
  48. Cheating Habit Among Examinations
  49. Modern Education has Failed in the Development Man’s Character
  50. Terrorism and Pakistan
  51. Political Interference in Educational Institutions
  52. Earth Quake Disasters in Pakistan
  53. Economic Situation in Pakistan
  54. Necessity is the Mother of Invention
  55. Use of Internet in Young Generation
  56. The Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW)
  57. My Favorite Book
  58. A Football Match
  59. Hazards of Science
  60. Beauties of Nature
  61. Is Luxury an Evil

DISCLAIMER: These Essays have been compiled especially keeping in mind the (S.S.T Exams) and have been taken from many sources (Books, Internet, Notes, etc). do not take credit for these Essays. The credit and courtesy go to the original authors. We at have only collected and compiled these essays (with necessary grammatical corrections and additions). Also, the beliefs, viewpoints and opinions expressed in these essays are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the beliefs, viewpoints and opinions of Tech Urdu and its staff._ Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani (Tech Urdu CEO)

Other Important Stuff Related to S.S.T General & S.S.T Science


Life is a Struggle

Life is beautiful but not always easy, it has problems, too, and the challenge lies in facing them with courage, letting the beauty of life act like a balm, which makes the pain bearable, during trying times, by providing hope.

Happiness, sorrow, victory, defeat, day-night are the two sides of the coin. Similarly, life is full of moments of joy, pleasure, success and comfort punctuated by misery, defeat, failures and problems. There is no human being on Earth, strong, powerful, wise or rich, who has not experienced, struggle, suffering or failure.

No doubt, life is beautiful and every moment – a celebration of being alive, but one should be always ready to face adversity and challenges. A person who has not encountered difficulties in life can never achieve success.

Difficulties test the courage, patience, perseverance and true character of a human being. Adversity and hardships make a person strong and ready to face the challenges of life with equanimity. There is no doubt that there can be no gain without pain. It is only when one toils and sweats it out that success is nourished and sustained.

Thus, life is and should not be just a bed of roses; thorns are also a part of it and should be accepted by us just as we accept the beautiful side of life.

The thorns remind one of how success and happiness can be evasive and thus not to feel disappointed and disheartened rather remember that the pain of thorns is short-lived, and the beauty of life would soon overcome the prick of thorns.

Those, who are under the impression that life is a bed of roses are disillusioned soon and become victims of depression and frustration. One who faces difficulties with courage and accepts success without letting it go to its head is the one who experience real happiness, contentment and peace in life.

Those, who think, that good times last forever, easily succumb to pressure during difficulties. They do not put in required hard work and efforts because they break down easily.

You can take the example of a student, who burns the midnight oil, makes sacrifices and resists temptations so that he can perform well. Similarly, a successful executive has to face the ups and downs of life, not forgetting that life is a mix of success and failure, joy and sorrow.

If he loses hope during difficult times, he would not achieve success and would be replaced by others. Even the strongest Kings and Emperors have had their cup of woes.

Life has not been a bed of roses for them. The adage ‘Uneasy lays the head that wears the crown’ has been rightly used for people, who are successful and are enjoying power and authority.

To sum up, life is beautiful just like roses but it has challenges which are like thorns and have to be faced and overcome by all. Those, who accept these, challenges and succeed, are the ones, who know how to live life in its true sense. Thus, enjoy life but also be prepared to bear the pricks of pain.

Should We Abolish Examinations / Examinations Serve no Useful Purpose

The exam is a word that most students fear off. A word that has a magic power to change a happy person into a frustrated and nervous one. However, it is a big part of the school that all students have to go through.

There are advantages in exams, but there are people who think the opposite that exams have more disadvantages to the students and should be abolished. Some people say that exams should not be abolished, because they say that exams are the only way for teachers to see the student’s level, it builds a high sense of responsibilities, and it gives him pressure that will be useful for him later in his life.

The students also compete with not only themselves but with other people. They do not want to see an increase in their knowledge. They want to beat their classmates to be on top of the class. Another reason is when the student knows that his hard work has paid off, he will feel a self-satisfaction inside of him and he will be so proud of himself.

So, those people who say that exams should not be abolished think of exams as a self-test to see where the students are, and how good they do.

I personally think that exams should be abolished. Because exams are stressful and they do not show real results of the student’s hard work and mental ability. They favour people who are gifted or have a good memory and good exam techniques and neglect the less able students who actually need the most help. Even though, those who have good memories may not be very smart during the classes and may not understand most of what they are memorizing.

In addition, teachers may grade student papers differently. Sometimes the same teacher will give the student a different mark to the same paper after a few months.

Another important reason I think is that students should not be judged on their performance on one day. For example, if a student got sick before the exam and he could not study well and got a bad grade or failed with the fact that he is an “A” student. Therefore, I do not think it is fair for him.

Finally, there are always going to be people who are with or against taking exams. It is a controversial issue in all countries. However, I believe in regular testing throughout the year. I say doing projects during the year, grades for participation after every lesson, and having weekly assessment is the best solution and the fairest approach for this debate.

The Most Interesting Book I have Ever Read

Our school library is having books which I like very much. One of my friends showed me a certain book in the library and he said that is his favourite book. He also said that is was the second part of the most famous Adventures of Huckleberry Finn written by Mark Twain.

I borrowed the book from the librarian on the advice of my friend. When I went home that day, I had an immediate lunch, when to my room and started reading the book.

Home interesting was it! It was a wonderful book. The book was full of adventures. The main character was Huckleberry Finn who was a poor English boy whose father was a third class drunkard. This father wanted to get his son’s fortune which he gets previously in yet another adventure with Tom Sawyer, his friend. So Finn runs away from the custody of his father and meets another boy. This boy was Jim who had been running away from the master. He had been a slave boy.

The two friends go to the sea and get on to a ship. They become friendly with the seamen and go on fishing. They also go to the various island in the sea and engage themselves in many adventures. At last, they come home. Finn finds that his father had died and hi was no more in danger. Jim also gets his freedom with Finn’s help.

This interesting children’s novel had been written by well-known English Author Mark Twain who had previously written the famous book, Tom Sawyer. Both of these books are popular even today. So many millions of children throughout the English speaking world must have read these books. Much more than Tom Sawyer, it was the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn which was the most interesting book I have ever read.

Knowledge is Power

“A man without knowledge is like an idol” -Nidhi

So knowledge is life and it gives power to human being which makes him different from the other living organism Knowledge according to Oxford dictionary is “Facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject” “No thief, however skilful, can rob one of knowledge, and that is why knowledge is the best and safest treasure to acquire.” L. Frank Baum.

The Lost Princess of Oz, so the greatest treasure of life is knowledge It is only by the knowledge we can discern between right and wrong.

It is a powerful factor which helps man to attain success, power and position in life. There is no doubt that physical strength and money are instruments of power. A man who is physically strong or whose purse is full commands power over others but the power of knowledge is still greater.

Knowledge directs his actions and enables him to find the difference between right and wrong, good and bad. It helps him overcome his weakness and faults and face dangers and difficulties with courage and confidence. It gives him mental, moral and spiritual advancement. Besides this, it is through knowledge that man has gained mastery over nature.

Man is physically weaker than many animals. He cannot run fast as a panther. He cannot see as far as an eagle can. His sense of smell is weaker than that of a dog. He cannot carry as heavy loads as some beasts of burden do. He cannot fight tigers and lions with his bare hands. Yet he has managed to become the most powerful creature on earth. His power comes from knowledge.

Those who have wide-range of knowledge and experience can capture power and influence. The possession of knowledge gives them a distinct advantage over the semi-educated people.

Half knowledge is regarded as ‘the curse of God’ and also it is worse than ignorance. He explored the land, water and space by virtue of his knowledge.

Man has made progress in all fields starting from science, technology to arts etc. Knowledge gave the man a feeling of strength and power. Knowledge develops human faculties. It leads to the excellence of the mind. It enables one to give sound judgment.

Education and knowledge are desirable for democracy. We should try to spread the knowledge base in all fields in the masses. In the Pakistani rural scene, the knowledge levels about family, school education, problems of woman. child rearing and other social issues are very poor.

Illiteracy and social backwardness combine to put the rural masses at the receiving end. Lack of knowledge leads to poverty and absence of methods of productivity and economic prosperity. This vicious cycle continues. Restraint, tolerance, understanding and capacity to manage affairs come with knowledge. If knowledge is imparted to our rural children, youth, women and men, they would emerge as the major social power.

There is no end to the gaining of knowledge, It is only the foolish man who thinks he knows everything. Modern knowledge is very intricate and wide is scope The soldier, the man of the sword, though he was the master; but he was really in the hands of the priest, the man of the pen.

A Stitch in Time Saves Nine

There is no doubt that a stitch in time saves nine. It means that man must do something at a very early stage. This proverb in its literal sense applies to holes in our clothes which may be easily mended at first, but, if they are left unmanned, grow bigger and bigger, until they cannot be repaired without a great deal of sewing.

What is true of torn clothes is true of boots, boxes, houses, ships, walls, bridges, in a word, of everything that needs mending, I may quote a striking illustration of the truth of the proverb from my own observation.

A beautiful pier was built at great expense by Government many years ago on the stormy west coast of Scotland, to defend the harbour of a fishing village. The great stone of which it was composed were bound together by clamps of iron, and it looked as if it could defy the utmost fury of the waves. Nevertheless, in one of the violent storms that visit that iron-bound coast, as little damage was done to the most exposed part of the structure.

When I first saw the pier there was to be seen in it only a hole of moderate extent, that could have been repaired without much labour. But somehow the breach was left untended, and naturally grew bigger year by year until, on the occasion of my last visit to the town, half of the pier had sunk in ruin under the waves, and it was evident that to repair it would cost as much as the building of a new pier.

The expediency of the stitch in time is exemplified not only by the destruction of material fabrics, the rents in which are neglected, but also in medicine, politics, and in intellectual and moral education. How often has a doctor to tell his patient that, if he had been consulted earlier he might have affected an easy cure, but that now more drastic remedies must be employed?

A literary man, for instance, suffers from indigestion due to overwork and wasn’t of exercise. A short holiday in the country might restore him to good health if only he took it in time. But he has important work to do and is averse to taking any rest before he has finished it. So he goes on working until the symptoms become so threatening that he finds himself compelled to consult a doctor. To his surprise, he finds that entire change of diet and absolute idleness for a long period of time are now needed to cure a disease, the progress of which might have been arrested with very little trouble at an earlier stage. It is the same with the body politic.

The best politicians see in good time evils which, if allowed to go on unchecked, will swell to alarming dimensions. Thus the just discontent felt by the people of France on account of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and nobles might have been appeased by remedial legislation, but, as the cure was delayed, the feeling of disaffection went on gathering force, until at last it could no longer be extinguished and produced the horrors of the French Revolution. That no revolution has taken place in England for the last two hundred years is due to the fact that English politicians have been willing to anticipate rebellion by timely reforms. The same is true in our daily life. If anything is done at a very early stage, much energy can be saved for the same purpose.

The Fruits of Harbor are Sweeter than Gifts of Future

My journey started about 6 years back and is still developing to this day. Six years ago I weighed in at approximately 270 pounds, or that is when I stopped getting on a scale! My outward image was on a larger scale but in my opinion, not a 270-pound scale. I was an active teenager who participated in all sports. I loved the sports atmosphere but hated to put in the hard work, so I paid in many other ways. My weight increased and my performance went down.

After sports, my activity level steadily declined with many excuses in the tail. Jobs, school, and friends seemed to take precedence over my health and weight. Then the big life-changing moment came for me, I got married. Married life took a toll on me personally, you get comfortable as well as my schedule, which was no longer just about me. About a year into my new life, I was finding myself unhappy at times and even dissatisfied with myself.

I knew this feeling was in relation to my weight gains so I decided to try a new regime which included some exercise and changed eating habits, or what some calla “diet.” Well like most people who set out to lose weight with an improper mindset, I slacked off here and there and eventually dropped the entire workout, eat healthy scenario! It wasn’t until I had my son that it all made sense to me.

Yes, I needed to be healthy for myself, but I also had someone else depending on me to be healthy. With this new found motivation, I started walking. That was all I could physically do at the time, but you have to start somewhere. I progressively added on to my normal walking routine, and even challenged myself to do the unthinkable, run! I never thought of myself as a runner, partially because I never wanted to work that hard. With small goals of either weight loss or the addition of laps ran, I progressively started to see a change.

This routine continued for about a year, in which I took off about 70-75 pounds. This was a great accomplishment for me personally, but I wanted more for myself physically. With my plateau in full force, I decided to add in weights to my routine. I even added a variety of aerobics classes to my workout to give it diversity so that boredom did not set in. I found out through trial and error that things have to be changed up every now and then or your body stays where it is at and the results you desire are no longer coming.

With this new found lifestyle, I managed to drop about 100-110 pounds and gain a more positive outlook on life. With all of the changes that I made to my outer appearance, I made many to my inner self too. I feel that losing the weight was a stepping stone, a very steep stepping stone, which allowed me to venture out into a foreign location, the “healthy world” and discover a new life.

With the weight loss, I was able to do many more physical activities for myself and for my family. I once considered myself an inner athlete, this being when I was sedentary. I knew in my heart that I could be active, but did not want to try, due to the fear of failure. I set small but achievable goals along the years, as well as some that were pretty large. Never thinking of myself as a runner, I completed 1 full marathon and 2 half marathons along with becoming a certified aerobics instructor.

Looking back at who I was and who I am now, we are two different people who needed each other to create the end product. I personally feel that I had to experience the weight gain to appreciate who I am now and to help drive myself to stay this way. Everyone is different in this area. Some may never experience weight gains of 100 pounds or more, but whatever the weight gain may be, that adds to one’s body can be damaging to physical activity and appearance as well as your health.

My goal with telling my personal weight journey is to show other people that it can be done at any weight or age if it is something you truly want. I also want to show that it doesn’t matter how long it takes or the many tries you may encounter along the way, you have to persevere through the hardships to reach success, just as everyone does with life. Take your own personal journey to discover and appreciate who you are and who you want to be!

Votes should be Weighted not Counted

“Votes should be weighed, not counted”, so says the infamous legendary dramatist, Johann Friedrich

Von Schiller. And two centuries after his death, the words are fuelling the intellectual nourishment tanks of the ‘powerless’ and ‘humble’ around the globe, invoking them to strive for better political order and catalyzing their fight towards a political system based on reason, moderation, intelligence and prudence. And at no other point in the history of human civilization will these words hold truer than in the present scenario- the century marked by wildfires of political decadence, lack of political ethics, massive abuse of political power, rampant corruption, widespread nepotism, political instability, leaving the common citizens i.e. the source of power and sovereignty, at the receiving end of the cycle of oppression, suppression and exploitation.

The Greeks were the first to introduce the concept of ‘voting, albeit in a rigid and primitive form, in their ‘democratic’ city-states of Athens and Sparta. But the English liberals walked away with the credit of conceptualizing the modern voting system. They were the first ones to realize the importance and significance of achieving people’s consent, via voting, and granting the people the same for the legitimacy and vitality of the political organism. Nourished by these intellectual developments, democracy becomes the most ‘fought’ after, talked, valued and cherished political system during the last four centuries of the First Millennium.

The great American President Abraham Lincoln aptly defined democracy as ‘the government of the people, by the people for the people’. This definition spells out clearly the supreme power of the people within the democratic set-up. The people are the source of all power within the democratic state. From the Magna Carta of 1215 to the granting of Universal Adult Suffrage by successive democracies (New Zealand having the distinction of being the first Country to grant Universal Adult Suffrage in 1893), people’s power is everywhere to be seen. Lessons are plenty where suppression of people’s power led to political systems crumbling and disintegrating (Arab Spring movements being the recent examples where people’s power triumphed over corrupt regimes).

Suffrage grants the Pakistani people their due rights to have their say in the administration of the country denied to them by two centuries of foreign occupation. A vote is their weapon to fight for their rights and liberties.

For the first time in its history, the Pakistani Citizens are armed with a tool to fight against governmental abuses, injustice, inefficiency, corruption and the like. It is an instrument which holds the ‘political class’ accountable to the people. In brief, it acts as a shield in warfare protecting the people against the abuses of governmental power.

Elections are the cornerstone of any democracy. Here people’s power put a fantastic show periodically depending on the type of voting system. In the first- past the post voting system followed in our country, the candidates getting the maximum number of votes (simple majority) is declared a winner that is to say that the number of votes polled matters.

Here the question of weighing the votes polled in the elections come into the debate. The question of weighing the votes could be deliberated from two angles. Firstly, in the horizontal plane weighing one’s own votes. And secondly, vertically, weighing the value of one’s votes in comparison to the other’s votes. Now how do we weigh our own votes i.e. for whom to vote and why?

In developing countries like ours where the level of political education regarding the values and principles of liberal democracy is at the embryonic stage, the question of weighing one’s vote from democratic spectacles hardly come into the scheme of things. If present, these considerations get eclipsed by other elements.

The sixty years of parliamentary democracy practices provide ample scope to study the question of electoral behaviour in the country. Casteism, communalism, criminalization of politics, mafia power and money power dictate the realm of Pakistani electoral system. As a result of it, the development of political democracy in the country suffers a huge blow. Political democracy gets murdered and voting becomes an instrument to further selfish goals and interests.

The welfare of the community, state and the nation become secondary to selfish-individualism. National integration gets replaced by ‘parasitic’ regionalism, secularism by dirty communal politics, development of the minority by minority vote bank politics, welfare state by corruption, community interests by selfish-individualism and nepotism and political democracy gets hammered by political corporatism. Our temples of democracy- the legislatures, become an opportunity for individuals to further their ends.

As a result, people’s power gets crucified and democracy (voting) gets transformed into a sacrificial lamb. Having said so, how we do weigh our votes as having more value than the other? What are the criteria for weighing one’s vote? It is a standard limitation of democracy that despite the magnitude of someone’s opinion or effect on their lives, their vote is equal to any other. We could never agree whose vote should carry more weight.

Disclaimer aside, it is still pretty absurd. “Weighed” by whom? Who gets to decide that your vote is better than my vote? Once you’ve decided on that person, why waste your time on the vote in the first place? Voting is itself a highly dubious proposition. The majority of the people engaging in it don’t know what they’re talking about. Even the ones whom experts would say have the correct opinion often hold it for incorrect reasons.

Plato was rightly sceptical of democracy, which he believed would lead to bread and circuses, and in my opinion that’s the fate befalling the world right now. But as bad as it is, I don’t know a better system. Democracy has thin merit, the fact that the votes of non- experts often cancel each other out, yielding a victory for minorities who are correct. Truth has an advantage that falsehood doesn’t, even if most people can’t tell the difference.

Our state election is going to take place in the next few years. Unfortunately, we are disappointed by both politicians and citizens. The first is supposed to be smart, well-educated and capable of managing a country (add willingness on top). The second is supposed to have a moral and social conscience (Education) in order to choose the right candidates. The majority of the people prefer a reassuring lie over an inconvenient truth.

Rest assured, voting is still handy not only for the health of our political organism but more for the empowerment and development of the state. Our voting instincts should be weighed on consideration of community interests, inclusive development, and responsive, accountable and ethical governance.

Citizens must remember that they are voting not only for themselves but for the community as a whole. We are voting to shape our society, polity, economy, and for the future of our children. We should ask ourselves what kind of legacy do we want to leave behind? Intelligence and rationality should take its due place.

The change should come from the people not to the people. If we do not, then we needn’t really concern ourselves with the suffering we willingly inflict on ourselves. A rational populace in the Arab Countries (the Arab Spring) stormed their regime and toppled decades’ rule of their corrupt leaders a few years ago. Should not we learn from them? Should not these historic movements for the empowerment of the people inspire us? Should we choose to let things happen and let our future being lost one day? We have been taken for a ride for far too long. It’s high time the people weigh their precious and powerful votes.

Your votes, my votes must be a revolutionary force in next elections. Break the shackles and tear down the walls. The ‘political class’ must also remind themselves of the events of the past few years in the Gulf region where youth bulge coupled with lack of civil liberties, underdevelopment, poverty, human rights abuses and corrupt administration exploded and the rest is history. And Meghalaya with over 40% educated youth population cannot afford to turn a deaf ear to their (people) voices. Ignoring it would be suicidal or so should it be. To repeat a verse of Tunisia’s National Anthem – ‘when the people want a better life, destiny has to bow and – If one day, a people desires to live, then fate will answer their call’.

My Idea of a Happy Life

Happiness, I believe, totally depends upon what a person has. If a person has. If a person does not have wealth, he would think that happiness lies in possessing wealth. Another would find happiness in prayer and meditation and still others in travelling or in gossiping. It is wrong to think that one can get happiness by labouring for it. It comes as naturally and as refreshingly as the morning air.

I think one can get happiness by enjoying the work at hand. If a person keeps himself mentally busy and remains contented, he can remain happy. Our high hopes and soaring ambitions often make up unhappy. If a person thinks that every moment is to be enjoyed like every drop of dew left in a bud, he will definitely be happy.

This type of satisfaction excludes envy and jealousy. One should never think ill of the happiness, others, rather one should never think of remaining complacent with what one should have. The habit of comparing and contrasting and the desire to become what others are often left, sorrowful heart.

If a person can enjoy peace of mind, he gets the happiest life. If we are hankering after the worldly things and desires we remain unhappy. We should do our duty without thinking about the result. Duty, which God wishes us to perform, should be our aim. Such people will be neither overjoyed by success nor frustrated by defeat.

One can enjoy while watching the birds or kicking his heels upon the ground. One can be happy in catching the butterflies or looking vacantly at the starry sky. In fact, one should find every moment quite absorbing and should always think that every moment is the most important one. He should take as much interest at that moment as is possible.

Happiness is a state of mind and not a possession. It is a product of imagination and not of labour. It is to be enjoyed through spirit and not through senses. It can be felt and not seen.

Similarly, life should not bed the ultimate aim of living. This is preparation for the next life. Such an attitude makes us indifferent to the death of our near and dear ones.

Though this attitude needs great control over our emotions, yet this can afford us happiness.

Happiness cannot be monopolised by saints. It cannot be the exclusive right of wealthy people. It is not meant only for a child.

Happiness can be enjoyed by a common man. It is around us; we are to discover it. So a man should tune himself up for it and he will get it.

Effective Teacher’s Respond to the Needs of Students – Discuss

Effective teachers strive to motivate and engage all their students in learning rather than simply accepting that some students cannot be engaged and are destined to do poorly.

They believe every student is capable of achieving success at school and they do all they can to find ways of making each student successful.  Effective teachers have high expectations of students in terms of both their standard of learning and their behaviour, and they help their students meet those expectations. They also have high expectations of themselves and their own learning.

Effective teachers personalise learning for their students. They understand that students develop at different rates and that in every classroom there will be a range of student abilities and aptitudes. They accommodate the different needs of students in their class rather than pitch their teaching to the middle, letting some students be bored while others struggle or are unable to do the work. 

Effective teachers use techniques that have each student working on tasks that engage and challenge them to achieve their personal best. They understand that students learn best when they are presented with new material in a way that enables them to connect it to what they already understand and know how to do. Effective teachers also understand that students learn best if their particular culture, background and abilities are acknowledged by the teacher in the way they teach.

Effective teachers use techniques that best serve the learning needs of their students. There are many things that students can learn themselves through discovery, with the teacher structuring the learning to suit. There also are many things that require the teacher to teach in a more direct way. Students not only learn by being exposed to learning opportunities but they also need to be explicitly taught those things it is important for all students to know.

Some students will learn these things quickly and with only minimal direct teaching. Other students will need concerted direct teaching and correction by the teacher before they master the learning required. Effective teachers help students learn on their own as well as with and from others. They know that students learn best if they are provided with opportunities to learn not only from the teacher but also from other students and from sources outside the school that are now more readily accessible through various forms of technology.

Effective teachers teach in a way that encourages students to take greater responsibility for their own learning. They make sure their students know what the goals of the learning program are; understand how these goals will be assessed; know whether they are on track to achieve success, and are actively involved in evaluating their own learning.

Effective teachers have a thorough knowledge of their subject content and skills. Through this, they inspire in their students a love of learning. They also understand how students best learn concepts, content and skills. Effective teachers use their knowledge of learning processes to determine which will be most effective to help the particular students in their classes learn successfully.

Effective teachers provide a safe and orderly environment, both physically and emotionally, so students can achieve their potential. They know students learn best if they are in a classroom where they feel safe and confi dent to attempt new tasks even if at first they are unsure about how to tackle them

Effective teachers closely monitor each student’s achievements. This enables them to provide every one of their students with regular feedback on their performance and gives them valuable information to assess the impact of their teaching.

Effective teachers are in the habit of constantly reflecting on how well they are getting through to their students and searching for better ways of teaching those who are not responding as well as extending those who are achieving well.  Effective teachers understand the standards their students are expected to achieve and use a range of assessment methods to determine the extent to which those standards are being met and to plan the next steps.

Effective teachers develop productive relationships with their students – they get to know them and take a particular interest in their overall development and progress. They treat their students with respect and expect the same in return. Effective teachers work collaboratively to benefit student learning.

Travelling in itself is an Education

Travelling has been universally recognized to have great educational values. In Western advanced societies, education is considered incomplete without travelling. It has been a delightful experience of mankind from time immemorial. Going place to place and meeting various people have been enjoying for people.

Today, travelling has become all the more enjoying and comfortable. We have fast-moving trains, deluxe buses, metro-railways, luxury steamers, ships, aeroplanes and many other means of travelling. It does not take too much time in travelling a long distance.

We do not have to suffer the severity of weather due to advanced means of transport communication. Travelling is a powerful aid to education. It provides an experience of the world. By travelling we come in to connect people of different caste, colour, creed and community to get familiarity with their tradition, culture, customs, has costumes and their style of living. This helps in better understanding. It sharpens our intellect and broadens us our outlook.

Travelling offers us the first-hand knowledge of things we shed off all our prejudices. It develops our personality and communication skills. Mere bookish knowledge to the development of all-around personality. It gives theoretical knowledge. We get only the sketchy picture of which is not complete. By travelling we see people, places with our own eyes. The visual impression is this impression. It remains in our mind for a long time.

Objects like history, geography and social sciences can better through travelling, it provides us with first-hand knowledge about these things. Geography appears to be a dull and uninteresting subject if it is taught in the classroom. But when the Merits are taken to a trip to the Himalayan regions or Gangetic plans the learning becomes interesting. Travelling turns this boring subject into a lively and absorbing one.

However, qualified a person may be, if he not undertaken travelling, his understanding is limited and the outlook remains narrow. He is less accommodating in his comparison to those who have widely travelled. Ivey is liberal in its outlook. They have a maturity of judgment.

Travelling promotes international understand and relations. It creates goodwill. It brings people closer. Increments our relations with various states and countries. The seeds of natural integration and international happy in the present day, the world the understanding between various nations of the world are a great necessity. There can be no peace without international understanding. So, it should be made an integral part of our curricula.

Information is Power

The futurist, Alvin Toffler— best known for his book Future Shock — wrote a book in 1990 entitled “Powershift — Knowledge, Wealth and Violence at the edge of the 21st Century“. In that book, Toffler described three types of power: Force (physical power), Wealth (economic power) and Knowledge (the power of information) Or, as his chapter 2 title says: Muscle, Money and Mind!

Most of us learn about force very early. Whether it’s from parental punishment, bullying, or watching Hollywood movies, we all come to understand that violence, or the threat of violence, is powerful. Criminals use it. Gangs use it. Terrorists use it. Good guys use it when they have no other choice. Society strongly discourages us from using it. The power of force predates civilization, and its unsanctioned use is considered to be uncivilized.

The invention of money, as a flexible means of facilitating trade, provided a new type of power — one that could be even more powerful and flexible than force, because it could be used to by force. And, unlike force, it could be used both as a carrot and as a stick. With wealth, you can induce people to do things willingly, rather than “force” them.

While force is rather individualized, wealth is something that can be accumulated. With enough money, you can buy an army. Or just buy what you want. Or buy out whoever has what you want if they won’t let you have it. Wealth usually trumps force, when it comes to power conflicts.

Toffler observed that throughout most of history, the power of force reigned supreme. The industrial revolution, though, was a transformative period in more ways than just technology. It also caused a shift from the force as the primary type of power in society to wealth as the new and preferred means to exert power. Use of force became regulated by law.

Following World War II, and with the rapid development of communications and computers, Toffler believes another shift began — from wealth as the primary power to information as the new power of choice. Wealth transformed from being predominantly land-based to becoming more generalized as “capital”, held by individuals and companies. The new Information Age quickly reveal the versatility of knowledge.

Information, as power, has some unique qualities.

  • Unlike wealth, which was originally based on land ownership and is still based on ownership of finite resources, the pool of potential knowledge in the world is virtually inexhaustible.
  • Information is valuable for trade when you have it and someone else wants it. But, if that information becomes known to others — if you lose exclusive control of it — then it becomes nearly worthless to you for trade. However, it still remains useful to you for other things.
  • Information, unlike goods, cost nothing to move around.
  • Information can be shared, and then used over and over again, without exhaustion. It is effectively an infinite resource.
  • Information may become valueless as a result of some new information that supersedes or invalidates it. That doesn’t happen with money — except in cases of total economic collapse.

Those are just a few ways of information, as a source of power, is unique and different from the other types of power. With the right information, you can overcome someone else’s wealth, or their ability to use force.

Information truly is power. And as Toffler predicted in 1990, it has become the predominant source of power in society today.

Teachers Lay Foundation of a Nation

Teachers play a significant and crucial role in a nation’s progress and prosperity. They dispel the darkness of ignorance and bring about enlightenment, erudition, and health revolution. Teachers build the base of any nation; he is the one who trains, guides, and transforms an immature mind into maturity. They install bravery and courage in their students and prepare them for the challenges that life would throw at them.

It is undoubtedly true that if there are sincere, dedicated, and determined teachers in any nation, then the nation is very well set on its way to triumph and progress. By providing a capable, industrious, and self-reliant youth, teachers can take a nation to great heights. And for these very reasons, teaching is considered a noble and sacred profession. 

Unfortunately, teachers nowadays have forsaken to perform their noble job, and instead of delivering with sincerity and dedication, they are pursuing to proliferate their earning through different resources. It is worth mentioning that in our society we can still find numerous teachers and scholars with a noble soul, who are putting their best efforts with selfless dedication to spreading the real essence and spirit of education, but unfortunately, many improvident and imprudent one have hijacked the ideology and philosophy of education. These teachers have nothing to do with actual education, and they are only interested in pushing their own agenda. 

It is high time for the government to realise the gravity of this situation. The hiring criteria for teachers need urgent reform. The government must evaluate the selection process and make the entire system transparent and in line with international standards.

Teachers should also be provided with adequate incentives, so they put their efforts towards providing quality education. Teachers should also realise they are employed in a noble profession, and all the government’s efforts will go down the drain if the teachers themselves are not interested in investing dedication and devotion in their work. 

Importance of Mother Tongue in Schooling 

With increased migration and the growing popularity of international schools, the number of children learning in a language other than their mother tongue is growing rapidly. Research indicates that having a strong mother tongue foundation leads to a much better understanding of the curriculum as well as a more positive attitude towards school, so it’s vital that children maintain their first language when they begin schooling in a different language. 

When children develop their mother tongue, they are simultaneously fostering a whole host of other essential skills, such as critical thinking and literacy skills. It is these skills that they take with them into formal education, and research tells us that any skills and concepts gained in the learner’s home language don’t have to be re-taught when they transfer to a second language. For example, if a child has developed the ability to guess the meaning of a word through its context, or to infer meaning by reading between the lines, these skills are easily transferred when they begin studying in a second language. It is much harder, however, to teach these abstract skills directly through a second language.

It’s also well known that a strong mother tongue foundation equips children with the skills they need to learn additional languages, allowing them to transfer their understanding of the structure of language to several new languages. The intuitive understanding of grammar that develops when children learn their first language can easily be passed on to other languages.

With multilingualism becoming an increasingly sought-after attribute within the workplace, this advantage cannot be overstated; globalisation and increased co-operation between nations mean that, in many organisations, it has become a requirement to have language skills in addition to being a specialist within a particular field. 

Language and mother tongue also play a huge role in the development of personal, social and cultural identity. Children with a strong foundation in their first language often display a deeper understanding of themselves and their place within society, along with an increased sense of wellbeing and confidence. Naturally, this flows down into every aspect of their lives, including their academic achievement. 

This is, of course, one of the reasons why bilingual education systems are growing in popularity around the world and many international schools are focusing their resources on establishing strong mother tongue programmes. Parent workshops outlining the importance of the mother tongue are becoming increasingly popular, because many parents mistakenly believe that they should only speak to their children in the school’s language of instruction, often contributing to children not gaining complete fluency in either their first or second language.

In Cambodia, for example, our EAL (English as an Additional Language) specialists regularly invited parents into school for evening workshops. They outlined research showing how children learn languages, discussed the school’s teaching methodology for language learning, and, most importantly, explained the importance of a strong mother tongue foundation and the vital role that parents play in developing and maintaining this. 

Carolyn Savage: ‘A strong mother tongue foundation equips children with the skills they need to learn additional languages.’

When I taught in Bratislava, we encouraged children to bring in books written in their home language(s) and to share these with the class. Sometimes, children chose to read small extracts out loud, allowing them to demonstrate more developed reading skills, whilst simultaneously building pride in their own culture and developing respect for all cultures within the school. This was just one small part of the jigsaw that made up our in-depth mother tongue programme. 

As Irina Bokova, UNESCO Director-General said, “Mother languages in a multilingual approach are essential components of quality education, which is itself the foundation for empowering women and men and their societies.”  

Unemployment in Pakistan / Unemployment Among the Educated Youth; Its Causes and Cure

The chronic unemployment crisis is one of the gravest challenges Pakistan has been facing since long and which, unfortunately, still continues to haunt us. In Pakistan, even a person who has the ability and willingness to work is unable to get a proper job opportunity.

In the current situation, more than three million people are unemployed in Pakistan and the unemployment ratio is more than 12:1. One out of every 10 people of the country’s population has been added to the pool of the unemployed, as the unemployment rate further increased to 6.5%, showing signs of a crisis-plagued and slowing economy.

Unemployment is one of the major issues Pakistan has been dealing with since its inception. In Pakistan, unemployment is very high because the available resources are being wasted due to the negligence of authorities and citizens. This has led to a substantial decrease in people’s incomes and a drop in their standard of living.

This is the crisis that can be termed as the root cause of many other serious challenges we are coping with today. Thousands of graduates, master’s degree holders, engineers, in short, people of almost every profession being wasted due to unstable employment system in Pakistan.

Not only educated people but the labour class, too, is perpetually going through a rough phase. In 1999, about 2.4 million individuals belonging to the blue-collar working class were unemployed.

The causes of unemployment in Pakistan are endless and countless yet some of them are as follows:

Population size, growth rate, and its composition play an important role in the social and economic development of a country. The higher growth rate of population is the major cause of unemployment in Pakistan and a formidable hindrance to achieving the goal of economic development. Pakistan is among those developing countries where the population growth rate is very high.

At present, it is the sixth most populous country in the world with a projected population of nearly 188 million. According to the World Population Data Sheet 2013, Pakistan with a population of 363 million in 2050 is expected to retain the same position (i.e. sixth position). The population growth rate in Pakistan is 1.95 per cent which is higher than the average growth rate of South Asian countries. This uncontrolled growth of population has left millions of Pakistanis deprived of ample opportunities to earn a respectable livelihood.

There are plenty of factors responsible for the fast-growing population including early marriages, illiteracy, desire for sons, lack of awareness etc. As we all know that the education system of Pakistan is not up to the mark; therefore, increasing population means bringing more uneducated persons into the field of labour. Government or any other company cannot provide jobs or workplaces to this huge number of uneducated people.

Education is a social instrument through which a man can guide his destiny and shape his future. A knowledge society can be build by making the education process more effective which, in turn, provides foundations for the socioeconomic development of the country. Hence, the role of education has become centric in order to develop a knowledge economy since literate and skilled citizens play a pivotal role in the development/prosperity of the country. But, unfortunately, the education system in Pakistan has been really poor.

No government has taken extraordinary steps to better the education system. It is usually seen that many a talented student left the study due to injustice and wretchedness of the system. Numerous technical educational colleges and vocational training institutions are functioning but most of them are only selling the degrees because the education that is being imparted to the students of these institutions has no market value.

Unrest in Pakistan and the worsening law and order situation has compelled the business community to either close their businesses or to shift their capital to other countries. It is because of rampant violence and terrorism that no foreign investor is interested in investing his money in such a country where his life is not secure; let alone his business and property.

This becomes another major cause of rising unemployment because it creates a lack of jobs in the country. For instance, Karachi is the biggest industrial city and the commercial hub of Pakistan, but investors are reluctant to invest there because of unrest and violence. Extortionists and killers go scot free. In such circumstances why an investor would dare to risk his life as well as money? If we really want to reduce the unemployment rate in Pakistan, then the very first step should be to restore law and order in the country.

Could you believe that a country which possesses abounding natural resources and is a nuclear power lack energy? Pakistan is the country that has been haunted by the acute energy crisis since long. There are many sources of energy production in Pakistan but due to lack of proper planning and directed efforts, the country plunges into darkness for the most part of a 24-hour day.

The government is unable to provide electricity to residential as well as industrial areas in Pakistan. When electricity and gas are not available to run the factories, petrol is not amply available to run the transport, then how on earth factories could generate employment opportunities? Therefore, owners of these factories and industries are shifting their business to other Asian countries like Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka. As of this result, a huge number of labourers are falling prey to the monster of unemployment.

The age of retirement for government employees in Pakistan is quite high. Numerous highly-educated and talented people enter the job market every year but they do not get opportunities to be on job. Government servants who reach the superannuation age are then reappointed by the government. In this way, millions of people are wondering but no one is ready to employ them. This further aggravates the problem of unemployment in Pakistan.

Agriculture is going through the process of mechanization whereby machines are replacing humans which, in turn, increases unemployment ratio. People rendered jobless in this way then turn to cities in search of a source of earning a livelihood. This migration from villages to cities also increases unemployment and many other social ills.

Following recommendations can help in reducing the problem:

  1. The first thing to reduce unemployment in Pakistan is to introduce revolutionary changes in the country’s educations system. The prevalent system is producing only the people who are not highly skilled as per the requirements of the job market.
  2. An organized and well – thought – out syllabus should be introduced in technical training and vocational institutions. More and more institutions should be established to produce skilled technical workers for our industries.
  3. The age of retirement should be reduced to a maximum of 55 years. In addition, the culture of ad hoc appointments and extensions in tenure or in the contract should also be eliminated.
  4. Solving the energy crisis must be the top priority of the government. It is the only panacea if we want to attract foreign investment in the country. If foreign investors come to Pakistan, then job opportunities to our youth will be easily available.
  5. There should be peace across the country so foreigners may not hesitate from investing in Pakistan.
  6. The agriculture sector should be developed.
  7. Jobs should be given purely on merit.
  8. Robust policies must be introduced to control the growing population. Family planning centres can be an effective tool in this regard.
  9. Economic Revival package must be announced by the government in order to make sure the industrial sector is revived and more investment and production is carried out in Pakistan.

Women Place in Our Society

“Lucky is the woman, whose first child is a daughter”. ( Prophet Muhammad (S.A. W))

Women never enjoyed the status and respect that they enjoy today. They are playing their due role in all walks of life. Men have only gradually acknowledged their contribution to society. The concept of a male-dominant society is on the decline now. Women have proved that they are inferior to none.

Women had no respectable place in society before Islam came to their rescue. They were ill-treated and had no rights to education, economic independence and inheritance. They were considered the product of the devil. The new-born girls were buried alive. They were also burn alive with their dead husbands. Islam gave women respect and basic human rights.

“If a woman has to choose between catching a fly ball and saving an infant’s life, she will choose to save the infant’s life without even considering if there are men on base.” (Dave Barry) Women are playing their role today in different capacities. They enjoy better status now as a daughter, sister, wife and mother. They have social, financial and matrimonial independence. They are no more confined to the four walls of their houses. They now fully participate in the social, political and economic development of the country.

The main responsibility of a woman is to preserve the human race. For this, she has to bear many hardships. She gives birth to children, feeds them and helps them to grow up. It is quite true that great men have great mothers. The progress of a nation depends upon the way mothers bring up their children. If the women are educated the society is bound to progress and prosper.

Women are the largest untapped reservoir of talent in the World. (Hillary Clinton) Women have always played an important role in the development of a nation. In the early days of Islam, women worked side by side with men. The history of the Muslims is full of the names of women who were eminent scholars, poets and Sufis. They are also entitled to freedom of expression and to put forward their opinions on public, legislative and religious matters. In the battlefield, they nursed the injured, kept up the supplies and in certain cases, even fought bravely.

Some women may like to choose some profession as a career and earn for themselves. There are certain jobs which women can do more easily and more efficiently than men. They can be very useful and successful teachers, doctors and nurses. By nature, they are polite and sympathetic and can do well in teaching and medical professions. Women are the real architects of society.

Being a Muslim, the main duty of a woman is to perform her duties as a good wife, good sister, good daughter and good mother. She should look after the home and manage family matters using her ability. She must understand her duties as a wife or mother. If she does not do so, society will be collapsed.

Islam and the constitution of Pakistan have conferred upon women an enviable place. Women should not misunderstand and misuse the rights which are given to them. They should play their role wisely in the progress and prosperity of the country being a good citizen as well. They should remain peaceful with themselves and with the forces of nature around them.

Environmental Pollution

Environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems the world faces today. It is an issue that troubles us economically, physically and every day of our lives. The contamination of the environment is also being linked to some of the diseases that are around currently.

Yet, most people do not know about this problem. This shows that environmental pollution is becoming an increasingly worse problem that needs to be taken care of as soon as possible, not only for the good of the environment but also for the people that live in it.

Many factors are present for why environmental pollution has become such a large issue in the world. However, if the people of the world were to address the issue it would definitely help both the environment and its people.

There are many activities that can be done by both the common citizen to the governments of the world, which could severally improve the world’s environmental problem. On the other hand, if the current way the world’s environmental problem is being handled continues, catastrophic consequences can follow for the future population.

Over the years, environmental pollution has become more of a problem for a number of reasons. Due to the great increase in the world’s population, which is at 6.1 billion, energy use, and the number of vehicles on roads make air pollution a greater threat than ever.

Because of this, “air pollution kills eight thousand people a year due to respiratory-related problems. “Also, 40% of the world’s deaths are being attributed to environmental factors. With such a number of people dying a year due to air pollution, one can see how much environmental pollution is affecting us.

This dilemma is only made worse due to the current means of disposing of nuclear waste. “Until 1993, Russia would resort to the dumping of its high and low-level radioactive waste by dumping it into the Arctic seas and any other low-level waste into the Seas of Japan z(Nitze).

“Radiation from nuclear waste is known to cause a series of reactions in body tissue that results in damage to the bodies cells z (Daley). This can cause diseases, such as cancer, injury, or death. The effects on the human body make the situation even worse for the people of the world. But, an even more common threat is the use of incinerators and landfills, for the reducing and disposal of waste.

Using incinerators to reduce the volume of trash not only causes air pollution but also produces toxic ash that must be disposed of in specially made landfills. Landfills themselves can pollute groundwater after heavy rain, which would then be drunk by the surrounding population.

Corruption in Our Country

Corruption is one of most chronic issues all over the world especially in the third world countries like Pakistan where it has routed down in government institutions enough that cannot be eliminated easily following the stakes of powerful bureaucrats and corrupt politicians.

Corruption has spoiled Pakistan completely and is resulting in an increase in poverty, unemployment, hunger and is tarnished the image of the country by bringing immense miseries to its people. Corruption has been deep-rooted in all levels either private or government from top to bottom and anti-corruption institutions have unfavourably failed to address this or even reduce the ongoing dishonesty and frauds. There are many top politicians who have been reportedly involved in this misconduct that are concerned with their stakes only without thinking about the public.

We can find two vast concerns or issues in present Pakistan that are expanding like epidemics(corruption and terrorism) which have reinforced their germs in every cell of our society.

There are numerous indirect corruption charges from social media and electronic media present but no ruling authority is ready to investigate the corrupt persons for these illegal and dishonest concerns like illegal Sui-Gas and electricity supply, illegal possession of the land and so on. Murder of merit and Justice, political nepotism and selling of government jobs by ‘corrupt ruling politicians’, hundreds of thousands of skilled and educated youth are deprived of deserving jobs.

It is the responsibility of every individual to work jointly with the government institutions to make Pakistan a corruption-free country. Corruption will not prevail in society until deserving peoples are given their rights. And this isn’t the Pakistan which our forebearers dreamt for.

A Moonlight Walk

Moon is an integral part of our universe. It is one of the beautiful heavenly bodies. It adds beauty and splendour to the darkness of night. The light of the moon has a soothing effect.

Walking in a moonlit night has its charm and beauty. It is a refreshing experience. It relieves you of all your tension and gives pleasure. Strolling in a moonlit night particularly during the summer add to the delight and pleasure.

Walking in a moonlit night not only delights our heart and relaxes our mood but also removes the boredom and weariness caused by the hectic schedule of the whole day. The atmosphere during the moonlit night is surcharged with calmness and quietness, particularly in the countryside which is away from the clamour and noise of the city.

The plants and trees and whole atmosphere bathed in the cool light of the moon present an enchanting sight. Walking in such an atmosphere really fills with joy. It elevates our spirit. It invigorates us for better thinking and ideas. We are filled with renewed energy and strength to carry on our next day task. It is indeed a thrilling and relieving experience.

The entire nature robbed in a silvery shining light is so enchanting that we don’t like to go inside the house. It is so enjoying that we like to continue it for more and more time. Everything appears to be cheerful and mouthful. The sweet fragrance emitting flower, the dancing of petals in the moonlit night is the soothing and cool wind and the trees whispering really render an absorbing sight.

The sight in the remote countryside is all the more enjoying where there is an expanse of green fields, flowers and fruits laden trees clothed in shining of moonlight serve as stress-buster. Poets have composed verses on the beauty of the moonlit night. It has a pet scene for the lover of arts including literature, artist, painter, etc.

Whether walking, singing, playing, dancing or doing anything in a moonlit night has its own distinct experience. Indeed a moonlit night is a feast to our eyes.

Journalism as a Profession

The career of a journalist is very interesting and full of vast opportunities and scope. It is gaining much importance and prestige in modern society.

With the manifold increase in the circulation of newspapers and magazines as well as the start of newspapers and journals, there is a great scope for the young men and women who want to join this profession.

There are hundreds of openings each year for the new entrants. The increase in the circulation of newspapers has created the need for the addition of more staff, both for the large and the smaller newspapers.

The proliferation of magazines and periodicals has also led to the proliferation of jobs in the field of journalism. There is no doubt that an ambitious man or woman possessing the necessary qualifications can find a suitable opening in the newspaper media.

The career of a journalist demands a wide range of qualities and skills. There is no doubt that this career is highly rewarding, but a journalist has to work very hard for this. He has to know something about everything.

The person who wants to reach the top has to master the techniques of journalism and go through the mill. He should also possess a flair for writing, sound judgement, personal integrity, earning for facts and expert knowledge of all branches of journalism.

The persons, who work for newspapers, come from many backgrounds and are of many temperaments. Those in the editorial departments need a strong sense of curiosity about their fellow-beings and sympathy for them.

The other qualifications include a good command of the language in which the paper is printed, an interest in politics and the government, a desire to know why things happen, high respect for accuracy and an aptitude for personal communication with other people in order to obtain news from them. A reporter must be both a willing listener and an alert poser of questions.

Nowadays newspapers generally seek employees for all editorial and journalistic jobs, who have had at least some college education.

Many editors insist upon a graduation degree as the minimum educational requirement for all reporters they hire. The diploma in journalism is desirable but is not absolutely essential.

Nevertheless, an applicant who is well trained in liberal arts, with emphasis on the language of the newspaper and political science, is welcome in most newspapers.

Some of those who join this career can also specialise in a particular branch of journalism like news reporting, editorial work, photography, feature writing, sports reporting, writing for TV and Radio, criticism, magazine writing etc.

Reporting and desk-work are two main divisions of news­room work. Reporting includes gathering and writing news and feature stories.

Desk-work includes the preparation for printing of the writing material and photographs submitted by the reporters, photographers and the news agencies.

The persons who do the desk-work are called the editors. Some men and women find their greatest satisfaction in being reporters all their lives probing for information, being close to the event as they happen and mingling with the people who make the news.

Few laymen have any concept of the inside workers of newspapers who really put the paper together. In fact, even the desk experience is quite necessary for top jobs. Similarly, few desk men are successful unless they have had a thorough grounding in reporting. Only in this way they can know the problems a reporter faces on a story and can give him useful suggestions.

A beginner can start city hall beat reporter for the small daily, he may also start as the telegraph editor handling the news wire and writing headlines. If he chooses the reporting path and sticks to reporting, then he may graduate eventually to a metropolitan reporting staff.

If he selects the editing path, he may advance to a large paper copy desk. Or, in either capacity, he may remain with the small daily and soon rise to the editorial management status.

Some persons prefer to become specialists and do their reporting in one specific field. The women’s page of a modern daily offers many opportunities for stimulating writing; the sports page has also been a great attraction for young reporters. Business news is also a speciality of many papers. Some big papers also offer opportunities to critical reviewers of film, television, the drama and books.

There are also many opportunities to specialise in one of the broader general news areas; politics, science, labour, religion, urban problems, social work, and public help.

Although news reporting is the most glamorous and best-publicised part of newspapers work, there are many other opportunities available for young men and women on the editorial page, advertising and sales, copy-writing, circulation, photograph, promotion, public relations etc. in a newspaper.

Many young men and women join certain small newspapers or magazines even to do the subordinate or secretarial work.

After obtaining a foothold in the newspaper work they rise up to high posts due to their merits and qualifications, because after working in the offices of these newspapers and magazines they acquire a lot of practical experience in the field of journalism.

Some persons, while working in subordinate positions, increase their educational and professional qualifications by attending part-time evening courses or through correspondence courses.

Although academic or professional education is not an essential requirement for a successful career in journalism yet some academic qualification is desirable as a minimum so that a person can write correctly and fluently.

Possession of a university degree may be quite advisable for those who want to achieve rapid progress in the field of journalism or who want to reach the top jobs. Some newspapers also demand a minimum qualification of Bachelor degree or its equivalent for the new entrants.

A young man or woman who possesses the minimum educational qualification and the aptitude for journalistic work should apply to some newspaper or magazine office. If a person has already done some writing work, it will be considered as an additional qualification.

There is no doubt that a brilliant person possessing a good educational qualification and an aptitude for writing work, will not find much difficulty in securing a position or job in some newspaper or magazine office. Some newspapers may also offer the post of trainee or a junior reporter in the beginning for six months or one year. If a person wants to join this profession, he may accept even this offer.

To start with the salary offered may not be very high, but as a person gathers experience and proficiency in writing, he will be able to obtain rapid promotions and a good salary due to his ability and efficiency.

Social Service in Modern Society

In a world filled with injustices and incredibly complex, pressing challenges, we need people who are committed to making a difference in the lives of people within their communities more than ever before, and that’s precisely where social workers come in.

Through their commitment to bringing about positive social change, helping individuals of all ages thrive in their local environment and being an advocate for those who have lost their voice, social workers play a prominent role in improving the lives of those who need it most.

Though they work with both children and adults in vulnerable or disadvantaged populations, the benefits of a social worker’s service are especially evident in children. Without the help of a passionate social worker, countless children would have gone without the support and guidance they needed in order to lead the healthy, fulfilling life they deserve.

Social workers are critical members of society who work diligently to relieve suffering and better the lives of any and all people in need. Behind every person or family going through a difficult challenge in life – whether it’s poverty, addiction, abuse, unemployment, disability, mental illness, discrimination or anything else – is a social worker waiting to help.

But just because they’re standing by and ready to help doesn’t mean they’re going to do all the legwork themselves. Instead, social workers work closely with their clients to help them discover new and innovative ways to resolve or cope with the challenges they face in life, thereby giving them the knowledge, skills and empowerment they need in order to improve their circumstances and overall life.

In order to serve as a professional social worker, one must first obtain a bachelor’s, master’s or doctoral degree in social work or social service and undergo the required number of supervised fieldwork hours. Social workers have the ability to work with all types of people in virtually all realms of society, including Schools, Mental Health Clinics, Hospitals, Private Practices, Prisons, Military, Corporations, Public Agencies, Private Agencies, And Virtually Anywhere Else There Are People in Need

If you’re passionate about helping others, you’d like to play a role in forming a fairer and juster society and you’re ready to be a voice for those who are vulnerable and/or disadvantaged, social work may be the perfect career field for you.

The Advantages of Modern Technology

Today, technology is very important because it is used for almost everything and like everything, technology has advantages and disadvantages.

In the world today, people cannot live without technologies such as televisions, mobile phones, computers and others.

These technologies have slowly taken an essential part in people’s day-to-day lives and being without them would be unimaginable for some of us.

To understand technology, one must know what it provides in terms of advantages, but also disadvantages.

First, the evolution of technology is beneficial to humans for several reasons. At the medical level, technology can help treat more sick people and consequently save many lives and combat very harmful viruses and bacteria.

The invention of the computer was a very important point. Communication is thus enhanced, and companies can communicate more easily with foreign countries. Research is also simplified.

For companies, progress in implementing strategic technology trends is helping them save time and therefore, money. Exchanges are faster especially with the internet. Sales and purchases are now facilitated and possible worldwide. This allows businesses to buy raw materials with discounts or at reduced prices. Similarly, global tourism has grown.

Technology has also increased the productivity of almost every industry in the world. Thanks to technology, we can even pay with bitcoins instead of using banks. The digital coin has been such a game-changing factor, that many realised that this is the right time to open a bitcoin demo account.

When observed more closely, new things are discovered every day. Let’s take for instance when radio waves were discovered, radio broadcasts followed suit almost immediately. The same applies to television and electricity. If no one had discovered that electricity could be generated, then the entertainment industry wouldn’t be at its current stage of development.

Technology improves daily lives; allowing to move physical storage units to virtual storage banks and more. Scientists of the time are also able to send astronauts to the moon thanks to technology.


Poverty is a lack of basic human needs like health, education, clean water, nutrition etc. It is a condition in which one income is not sufficient enough to fulfil his basic needs. It is a curse and something like nobody would want to own.

In Pakistan it is not a yesterday born issue, it is eating up Pakistan and now it has spread out its circle to a larger radius now. Historically it began just with independence because of a lack of proper resources at that time. In 1980 there was a slight decline in its level but the level again risen up after 1990 and till now it is rising with fluctuation of time.

Currently, about 35% of Pakistan population lives below the line of poverty. Mostly people of rural areas live below the line of poverty and two-thirds of our population lives in rural areas. The scenario is also not different in urban areas where 40% population of the urban area live below the line of poverty. Currently, poverty is the cause behind many critical problems in Pakistan on one hand but it is also an outcome of many other problems.

There are a lot of reasons behind poverty. Most people blame politics and politicians as one of the reasons for prevailing poverty. Some call it lack of good leadership, some call it bad government policies and some call it bad politics but they all are the same in one. Politicians are sometimes not sincere for the eradication of poverty and some do not have a proper plan for its solution.

The policies adopted by the different government only cause a little fluctuation in the level of poverty but the condition of people remains the same every time. Bad governance also relates to corruption in poverty. Corruption has totally engulfed every office of Pakistan is now not considered as a sin but as right. It has gripped the country from highest level to lowest level so that leads to a weak economy and ultimately to poverty. 

Bad law and order is another situation for which the government can be blamed as it is also caused by poverty. Law and order situation is getting worse because the government doesn’t seem to be qualified to solve this issue. Law and order and protests are affecting the business directly because businessmen do not feel safe to carry out their business and the economy gets weak and poverty gets stronger.

The war against terror is provoking safety issues in Pakistan and poverty is proportional to safety issues naturally. Lack of standard education causes poverty because education makes people aware of everything which could be used efficiently with education. People here in Pakistan don’t have good business knowledge and they don’t know which business could lead to greater income for them so lack of education is also the leading cause of poverty in Pakistan. 

Fluctuated foreign investments also increasing poverty level in Pakistan, people invest a lot in Pakistani markets and economy flows with it but when they get their investments out of Pakistan the economy suffers and so do people of Pakistan in the form of poverty. Pakistan trend of increasing imports strategy is also worth mentioning here because she imports a lot of products which costs a lot even those products which can be produced with a little planning are imported from other countries on high prices. It certainly causes inflation and poverty.

As the government is behind most of these problems privatization is a problem which causes poverty. Government is not qualified to tackle the administration of the major institutions of the country so the only solution which comes to its mind is privatization. When these institutions are run by the private sector the economy gets weaker day by days like PIA and railways seems to be privatized and they are partially privatized.

Other things related to poverty are our bad morality, sense of responsibility and social bonding. Pakistan moral culture is getting worse day by day, people in Pakistan are not sincere for the eradication of poverty. People here don’t feel bad about being corrupt, they don’t feel bad when public property is destroyed or when someone is a threat to the country’s economy. Social bonding is weak in Pakistan they really don’t care for others problems and issues, all they care about is their own selves they are not honest. They don’t help the poor and they don’t pay taxes so people themselves are also responsible for rising poverty level.

Poverty is obviously not a good thing it’s a sin. It is the root cause of many problems like diseases, frustration, hatred, bad law and order, illiteracy and many more. A poor country like Pakistan has not enough resources to provide proper health standards to its people, peripheries are more worth mentioning about health and education issue.

First of all the fund allotted by the government is not enough to reach the standard of good health and lack of education is also the reason people know less about health issues. Education standard is very poor in Pakistan due to poverty, people can’t afford here to have a good education only the elite class here has access to a good education. As education is the solution for many problems of country poverty is the hindrance that comes in its way. This blend of health and education issues further give birth to many problems at the rate of a tenth of power as we use in mathematics.

Besides causing social problems in Pakistan poverty is also affects the country as a whole politically and diplomatically. Pakistan has lost its respect on an international level due to the poor economy, bad law and order situation and for the tag of terrorism. Every year Pakistan has to get millions of loans from the IMF and United States on reckless conditions not in the favour of the country. People of Pakistan are not seen with respectable eyes internationally. Pakistan has stepped into a war against terrorism because of poverty as one of its main reason. She lends money from the US in return for cooperation in a war which is not exactly its own war.

Shortly it can be concluded that poverty has totally engulfed Pakistan in its mouth where the escape is difficult but not impossible. There are still many ways to get Pakistan out of this disaster. Leadership has got central importance here, with proper planning and good government policies the problem can be solved. All they need to do is to appoint competent and wall qualified economists to help them tackle this issue and obviously, their sincerity for its solution cannot be ignored as well.

A country economy is the backbone of its country with its solution when it is solved many problems will automatically. Alone leadership is not enough for its solution. People of Pakstan have too got responsibility with an equal share. People need to cooperate fully with the government and should be sincere with their own country and put all their energies for the eradication of poverty.

Election Campaign

During election campaigns, political parties compete to inform voters about their leaders, the issues, and where they stand on these issues. The democratic theory supposes that participatory democracies are better served by an informed electorate than an uninformed one.

This has resulted in party campaigns being focused on making sure that their respective supporters and prospective supporters are well inclined with their main concerns, this is done through manifestoes and other such documents that outline the key issues a particular party focuses on.

This development in campaigning has led to a renewed interest in analysing successful campaigns.

Smoking is a Bad Habit

There are lots of negative effects of smoking. Smoking has been proven to be very dangerous for health. As one cigarette contains more than 4000 chemical substances, therefore, it causes many dangerous diseases such as heart attacks, asthma, bronchitis or lung cancer.

According to a recent report in Britain close to 3,500 people are killed each year in road accidents and 120,000 are killed by smoking. Furthermore, smoking costs governments millions of dollars because of the large number of people who need treatment in hospitals for smoking-related problems.

Moreover, passive smoking is also a major concern today. Recent research shows that non- smokers can suffer from health problems if they spend long periods of time among people who do smoke. In the UK children whose parents are smoke are three times as likely to start smoking themselves.

This world would be a better place without cigarettes. However, the decision of whether to smoke or not to smoke is for each individual to make. People should not smoke in a room or a place where there are non-smokers.

Smoking has become very common and fashionable, especially among young boys. This habit usually begins at school when boys try to experiment with every new thing that they can lay their hands on. Despite the warnings given by doctors about the ill-effects of smoking, people continue to smoke. Smokers are addicted to it, and even if they want to, they cannot refrain from picking up a cigar or cigarette and puffing away.

Some youngsters smoke for the sake of society and some feel that would make them appear liberated and broadminded. In the beginning, a teenager may take a few puffs from his friend’s cigarette; then comes a time when it becomes an indispensable part of his life. Several puffs lead to the formation of a habit. Soon smoking begins to affect the health of the smoker. He becomes a chain-smoker. This smoke is toxic and the nicotine in the cigarette is known to cause cancer.

It is ironic that despite the fact that every smoker is aware of the ill effects of smoking, he does not give it up. Tobacco companies are doing very well all over the world. Every packet of cigars or cigarettes has a warning inscribed in it: cigarette smoking is injurious to health.” Yet the smoker never reads this warning and even if he reads it he never pays heed to it. The government raises the price of tobacco every year. This is usually done to discourage people from smoking.

My Last Day at School / College

The first and last day at school is of unique significance for students. My last day at school is still fresh in my memory. There are many memorable things associated with my school life. Whenever I recall my last day at school, I become very emotional.

It was a fine day on February 26, 2017. I took my breakfast and wore a special dress and outfit. Then I left for school where calls IX had arranged a farewell party for class X. The hosts warmly welcomed the guests at the school gates. All of the boys were dressed up in glowing clothes. Everyone was in a gay mood.

The school was off due to the function. So, there were only teachers and the students in the second section. We were made seated in the school hall which was beautifully decorated. We had had a friendly chat before the event had started with the recitation of Holy Quran.

The comparer welcomed all the participants. The program was consisted off of a variety of shows. Some students sang very good songs. A group of students played a comedy-drama which was a marvellous one. Parody of some famous people was a hit item. Some of our juniors also read farewell poetry. We had a poetry competition with our juniors. In the end, our honourable headmaster made a speech. He advised all the students to work hard. He prayed for our success and bright future. A group photo was also taken. 

Then we were served with a hot lunch which consisted of many items. I still remember the festivity of that occasion. It showed the love of our juniors for us. After that, we all strolled around and had group selfies.

I felt strange when I was standing at the school gate looking at the school building with tears in my eyes. I could not help crying silently. I had to leave the place I loved and was proud of.  I left for home with a heavy heart.

Annual Prize Distribution

Prize distribution is one of the most important functions of a school. It is a memorable event in the history of the institution. It is held and marks the end of the academic year. 

The prize distribution in our school was held in the first week of March. It was held in the school hall. The Director of Education was invited to preside over the function. The rooms were whitewashed and cleaned. The school compound was colourful with flower pots and banners. Maps, pictures and paintings were hung on the walls. Chairs were arranged for the visitors. The stage was beautifully decorated. 

Prizes were arranged neatly on a separate table. The prize winners sat near the stage. 

The Chief Guest arrived exactly at four. He was warmly received by the principal and other members of the staff at the gate. The school had played the national song. The scouts gave him a guard of honour. He was accompanied to the auditorium by the principal and members of the school committee. 

The function started with a song. It was followed by a short drama. The principal read the annual report about the progress, examination results and extra-curricular activities of the school. The chief guest gave away the prizes. I also won a prize for standing first in my class. After that, the chief guest delivered a short speech. He praised the school for it all-round progress and brought home to the student’s duties and responsibilities. 

The principal thanked the chief guest and the function came to an end amidst cheers.

A Picnic Party

I shall always remember a picnic party that I describe here. I went to a canal (or river) in March last year with three friends of mine. All of us were on our bicycles, happy like birds and act like soldiers. We started early in the morning on a Sunday. We took food and fruit and cards with us. Two of us had mouth organs. As we reached the canal at about 8, we smiled at each other in joy. We were in a mood to enjoy ourselves to our fill (as much as possible).

First of all, we decided to sit down under a tree to tell jokes. All of us had a pretty big storehouse of jokes that we emptied. We laughed so much that we forget all our troubles and problems.

Then one of my friends suggested that we have a cycle race of five kilometres along the road, beside the canal. After some thought, we jumped on our bicycles and started the race stood second. When we returned to our starting point, we were quite tired. So we lay down in the sun and rested for half an hour. We had fruit and felt quite fresh.

Afterwards, we played cards for some time. It was a real pleasure to sit in the open air and play and talk. The water of the canal was giving sweet musical sound, and it pleased us beyond description.

Just sometime later, one of us said that it was no use sitting down. He said it would be better for them to climb some trees there. I did not like the idea, as I am not a good climber. But he said that he would himself climb a tree. He started climbing one with many branches. He reached its. top quite easily. He sat on the treetop and began laughing at us saying that we might also try to come up. Soon he started coming down. But, as he reached the middle of the tree, he found it difficult to move. Soon his foot.slipped and he fell down on the grass. As the ground was soft, he was not injured. He was very serious now, and he forgot all his earlier hits at us (remarks that he had passed on us).

We sat down on a grassy patch under tall trees and beside thick bushes. Having been tired by the exertion, we took a long rest. I even lay down and slept for a while. My other we companions also enjoyed some sleep. When we woke up, we were feeling fresh and active. We washed in the flowing water of the canal and then ate fruit. Then we started playing hide and seek around thick and tall trees. In the afternoon, we had some food and took further rest. In the evening, we returned home on bicycles, tired but satisfied at heart.


It was a bright sunny day in March last year that our 2nd-year students decided to go on a picnic. We discussed the picnic programme with our English teacher at the college sunken rose garden. The garden, itself looked like a picnic spot. But the girls wanted to go to a place outside the city. I suggested Kamran’s Baradari in the Ravi. It was a romantic idea, and all the class accepted it with loud cheers. Miss Robina, the teacher, loudly suggested the Jallo Park, but she was at once shouted down. She accepted my idea of Kamran’s Baradari, and we all were set to start the next day, Friday, on the college bus.

We started for the Ravi on Friday after attending our classes and saying the Friday prayer. In the afternoon, the overcast sky (covered with clouds) and the cool wind indicated (suggested) the coming of rain. We talked about it to Miss Robina and Miss Shabina from the college Physics department. They were in an extra-jolly mood, and they laughed and said that we could run into the Baradari with our games, and food if the rain came.

All this really happened afterwards. When our boats reached the Baradari, it started drizzling (raining lightly). Soon the rain stopped altogether. We sat on a green grassy ground shadowed by the most beautiful trees on earth. We took out our dishes and put the sandwiches and burgers on them. As we were eating, the teachers asked a few girls to sing favourite film songs. The girls sang as well as they could. We then asked Miss Robina to sing her best-loved songs, as everyone knew that she was a perfect singer. She started singing, and we started. dancing together with Miss Shabina. We photographed each other and the scenes around.

Many of us put our unfinished meals in the dishes on the ground. We started playing ludo and cards in groups and some sat in corners at ease discussing their future plans. And then there was lightning and thunder and a downpour (sudden heavy rain). We picked up our dishes and ran into the Baradari. I saw Miss Shabina slipping on the ground hurting herself.

The girls ran to her help and picked her up and carried her indoors. Some half an hour later, the sky cleared and the sun could be seen sinking in the west. Our teachers asked us to collect our articles and prepare to return, We did so, and they led, us to the boats into which we jumped in wild passion and joy. We were wet and tired but were feeling greatly uplifted (in very high spirits) and excited.

Allama Iqbal as a Philosopher

Allama Iqbal, great poet-philosopher and active political leader, was born at Sialkot, Punjab, in 1877. He descended from a family of Kashmiri Brahmins, who had embraced Islam about 300 years earlier.

Iqbal received his early education in the traditional maktab. Later he joined the Sialkot Mission School, from where he passed his matriculation examination. In 1897, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts Degree from Government College, Lahore.

Two years later, he secured his Master’s Degree and was appointed in the Oriental College, Lahore, as a lecturer of history, philosophy and English. He later proceeded to Europe for higher studies. Having obtained a degree at Cambridge, he secured his doctorate at Munich and finally qualified as a barrister.

He returned to India in 1908. Besides teaching and practicing law, Iqbal continued to write poetry. He resigned from government service in 1911 and took up the task of propagating individual thinking among the Muslims through his poetry.

By 1928, his reputation as a great Muslim philosopher was solidly established and he was invited to deliver lectures at Hyderabad, Aligarh and Madras. These series of lectures were later published as a book “The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam”.

In 1930, Iqbal was invited to preside over the open session of the Muslim League at Allahabad. In his historic Allahabad Address, Iqbal visualized an independent and sovereign state for the Muslims of North-Western India. In 1932, Iqbal came to England as a Muslim delegate to the Third Round Table Conference.

In later years, when the Quaid had left India and was residing in England, Allama Iqbal wrote to him conveying to him his personal views on political problems and state of affairs of the Indian Muslims and also persuading him to come back. These letters are dated from June 1936 to November 1937. This series of correspondence is now a part of important historical documents concerning Pakistan’s struggle for freedom.

On April 21, 1938, the great Muslim poet-philosopher and champion of the Muslim cause, passed away. He lies buried next to the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore.

The Teacher who Changed My Life

Teacher Life is an unexpected experience, so full of surprises that nobody knows what will happen the very next moment, especially when you meet a person who has the ability to change your life in a complete way.

Most of us have met a teacher during our lifetime in school that made a difference and touched our lives in some way to make it better and to open our eyes for success. I remember when the first day of high school started. I was very nervous and stressed, scared to the point that I didn’t want to be at the school. I had six classes that I had to attend that day. At the end of the afternoon, I walked in my last class and it was Social Studies. I usually don’t like this subject but the teacher started to change the way I thought about social studies.

Now Her name was Mrs Saeeda Javid she impressed me the way she was confident, and she told us about her story from high school to college and the success that she gained over the years of studying also the fears that she had. The bell rang, and the class is over. I stayed after class to talk to her about how I feel and how stressed I was about school.

She was very nice and she welcomed me. She said, “I’m here for you anytime “. I introduced myself to her, and I told her how lonely I felt being in school and that I had no one to talk to which make me feel really awkward, plus that wasn’t everything I was afraid of. I was worried about my classes too because they seemed a little hard. We talked for about an hour. She was a very good listener. She gave me a lot of advice that I needed at that time, and she told me to come to her whenever I feel like I need someone to talk to. I came back home really happy and confident.

Everything I felt earlier had disappeared. My homework was perfectly done, and I was excited to start my next day of high school and meet Mrs Saeeda Javid again. Years of high school was about to be over. Mrs Saeeda Javid walked me to senior year even though I had one class with her.

Through those three years, she taught me a lot of stuff. She made from me a man for life, she opened my eyes for a bright future and made me feel so special, but that wasn’t everything. When senior year started, I was in need of help and I went to her. I wasn’t sure if I’m going right after I graduate from high school I will go right after to college and I really wanted to know if I did the right thing or not. She gave me the best words that actually convinced me to decide what I should do after graduation. She said “through the years that I knew you, I have always seen you as a successful guy that has a good head on his shoulders, I want you to go to college and prove to yourself and to me and everybody that you will never fail or take a step back”

Mrs Saeeda Javid has changed my whole life, because of everything she did for me and that I actually listened to her advice. She played the part where I choose to attend college and look forward to being successful as I made a promise with her. Mrs Saeeda Javid wasn’t Just a teacher for me, but she was like a mother who really cares about her son, and she wanted to see me in a good place all the time where I can find the happiness and Joy in my life. That’s how I see her in my eyes.

Maybe that could be Just a little about how I feel about her because she is an indescribable person to me. I will never forget the experience that I had with her and what she taught me through high school years. Sometimes people appear in our lives suddenly, and they flip it upside down. They change us for better ones, and that’s what Mrs Saeeda Javid did for my life. I couldn’t be more thankful than any day in my life for having her. She shaped my life in Just a way that should be shaped.

Do Right and Fear No Man

My moral philosophy is very simple.  From any situation, I can come to a decision of what is the right thing to do morally, based on the idea of the “Golden Rule”, which is “Treat others as you would want to be treated”.  I feel like people as a whole aim to do good for one another, so doing the right thing can be very easy if we keep a positive mindset.

There will always be negativity in life, but if we free our minds from the negativity, hatred, and worry then we can easily put ourselves in a position to decide if we would like to be treated a specific way in any situation. Like anything else, through life experience, I have been able to gain knowledge of certain situations, so in certain situations, doing the right thing can be easy because I know that I have previously not liked the outcome of situations. 

In a position to decide if we would like to be treated a specific way in any situation.  Like anything else, through life experience, I have been able to gain knowledge of certain situations, so in certain situations, doing the right thing can be easy because I know that I have previously not liked the outcome of situations. 

In my opinion, the right thing to do morally is to treat everyone with respect.  Generosity is also very important to me because if people as a whole give more and expect less in return, we will all eventually benefit from this.  From my own experience, simple things we do in everyday living to help another person can really set the tone for their entire day, good or bad.  So by being generous to others, I feel like it can benefit their entire day.

The guiding light of my moral philosophy is the experiences I’ve had while growing up.  I’ve seen what both the good and bad can do to people and because of this, I have a relatively good idea of how I would want to be treated in any situation.  If a person experiences too much negativity while growing up, I feel like this blocks their mind holding a respectful style of living.  Luckily, while I have endured many negative situations growing up, I have been lucky enough to also surround myself with such positive vibes and a loving family.  Many people that struggle to treat people respectfully have lacked that positive energy, in my opinion.

When I try to decide whether something is the right thing to do, I use benchmarks that have come up in my own experience to measure a situation, whether it is my own or someone else’s.  Everyone in life has gone through their own personal struggles so no one knows what it is like to live another person’s shoes.  I try to keep this in mind when I’m dealing with other peoples struggles, whether they are my friends, family, or a complete stranger.  I have a better idea of what the people close to me go through, however, you can never understand someone else’s life entirely.  Because of this, I try to keep a level of respect and kindness for others in situations because I don’t know what they have gone through. 

When I see a complete stranger in a bad situation, I usually ask myself whether I would want to see my own brother, sister, or parent going through what they are going through.  This is something that helps me decide what I should do in a certain situation.  Once again, the knowledge that I have gained while growing up is something I hold myself to in everyday situations because it’s the morals that have been handed down to me from my parents that ultimately shape how I live day to day.

Carrier as a Teacher

There are many professions which man has adopted according to his knowledge and ability. A person can adopt any profession or business. It depends upon his aptitudes and mental capability. All profession are equally important for human development. But the teaching is the profession which has lead people on the high way of progress and prosperity. No development had been possible if there had been no teacher. All the sciences all the arts and crafts and all the civilizations and cultures are due to the teaching. In fact, teaching is the noble profession let me call the teaching as a prophetic profession because invariably all prophets are teachers. They taught and preached the message of God. 

The importance and nobility of this profession is evident from a tradition of Holy Prophet (Peace be upon Him) in which he says “I have been sent to you as a teacher” in another Hadith Holy Prophet (Peace be upon Him) says “He who is neither teacher nor student is not a Muslim” these sayings of Holy Prophet (Peace be upon Him) show the importance of teaching and learning and prove that a Muslim must be an associated with the process of teaching. Thus teaching is a great profession.

Teaching as a profession requires a great courage and moral strength, because it is not sound so far as financial side is concerned. But as regards the side of honour and dignity teaching is considered a noble and respected profession. In the east people always had awe and respect for this profession.

Teaching is a noble profession because it deals with the words of God, written on human hearts or in nature or in the Holy Books. All the secrets of nature have been revealed by the teacher to humanity. All the messages of God have been communicated by him to mankind. So the teacher is the source of knowledge and guidance for the human being.

Teaching aims at enlightening and contentment of mind in men. Teaching broadens and illuminates the dark corners of the human heart and mind. Teaching tries to show humanity the road of progress and prosperity. Teaching does the work of character building. It refines the personality of man and rise in him the thirst for knowledge. Teaching tells the man what is true beauty and goodness. Through the guidance of the teacher, man drinks from the sources of truth beauty and goodness and tries to incorporate them in life.

It is the profession of teaching which had enabled man to be a scientist, doctor, philosopher, agriculturist, politician or lawyer. With the help of a teacher, a person leads a successful life. Teaching not only trains a person for material benefit but it also arranges moral, spiritual and religious training for man. Let me say that teaching is the profession which shows man the road which leads him to God.

Teacher as a Nation Builder

Teachers can be rightly called a nation builder because it is through their perseverance, love and navigation towards the right path that great men have built our nation. It is our dear teachers who build our character and personality, which leads us towards our final career destination.

Society turns to teachers to build itself and set its future generations up for success so as to lead society in a positive way. In light of the recently commemorated Teachers’ Day on October 5, I would like to highlight the significance of teachers in our own country, which could use a lot of guidance in the way of betterment.

A teacher also imparts lessons in ethics and morals and serves as an important role model for children, therefore they must be appreciated and respected while teachers should also realise their importance and responsibilities’.

Teachers inspire their students to aspire for greater things, and as school is a socialization agent teachers play an important role in nation building. Teachers ought to be highly respected members of society as they shape the character of their students. While everyone can be trained it is not all people who gain knowledge and are willing to learn.

To facilitate knowledge acquisition the input of the teachers is required, and they are well placed to motivate the learners to work hard work, gain knowledge and be successful. Regardless of whether learners are slow or fast, teachers instil in them the importance of working hard in what they are good at and being people of high integrity.

Teachers contribute towards the creation of a prosperous nation when they help to build the future of young learners. It may be necessary to reform teaching to improve teaching to meet tomorrow’s challenges. Teaching is like a calling and it is not everyone who has the patience to mould the character of students like the teachers do.

Confident young people build nations, and teachers make conscious decisions to inspire the next generation of leaders. It is not an easy decision for the teachers to continue being in the profession when there are budget cuts in the education sector and attempts to limit their independence. When schools fail, teachers are singled out even when detractor signore the factors outside of the teachers control that affect success in education.

Knowledge is the basis for national development as decisions are made to improve the well being of the people. People are skilled to the extent that they gain knowledge and can apply skills. The teachers affect skills acquisition and appreciating the role that teachers play fosters knowledge acquisition and moral development.

A teacher acts as a guide, but they also need to be highly committed to prepare the learners and impart useful skills on them. Teachers are entrusted with the responsibility of teaching, supporting learning and moral development. The absence of teachers stunts education and affects the development of leadership skills among the youth

Teachers are role models and act as second parents to the young learners, and young students look up to their teachers for encouragement and inspiration. The role of teachers in civic education and encouraging civic engagement cannot be ignored as civic participation is associated with willingness to get things done.

Despite the benefits of having competent and motivated teachers, their efforts are not well appreciated. This should not be the case and teachers ought to be well trained and respected to have a bigger impact on students and young adults. Citizens build a nation, but there cannot be active citizens in society if they are not properly moulded from an early age, as parents and teachers or educators fulfil this role.

A good education system builds good teachers and learners, while each nation requires innovative leaders and relevant education. Now more than ever before knowledge societies make a difference in building a nation teachers are not merely transmitters of knowledge, but also supporters of innovative thinking and competence to meet todays and future challenges. Young learners eventually encounter challenging moments as they grow older, and school is one of the places where they learn to navigate unknown territories.

Teachers prepare the students to tackle the challenges that they encounter, and as they are exposed to different things they get wiser and are ready to lead from the front. All advanced nations have invested heavily in education as the leaders understand the importance of education in national development and improving competitiveness in the economic front.

Teachers are sometimes considered the second parents of a student. A teacher leads a child to gain knowledge and explore his or her natural or innate interests and abilities. An ideal teacher is a great motivator who encourages a student to generate a zealous hope to approach and achieve a student’s career goals and aspirations. A teacher also imparts lessons in ethics and morals and serves as an important role model for children. With these teacher qualities kept in mind, new teachers should also be trained to work with these aspects in mind.

Finally, teachers must be appreciated and respected as they perhaps play the most important part in imparting civic education to students and young adults and must be provided better facilities and incentives to continue doing so for the development of our nation.

With these teacher qualities kept in mind, new teachers should also be trained to work with these aspects in mind. Finally, teachers must be appreciated and respected as they perhaps play the most important part in imparting civic education to students and young adults and must be provided better facilities and incentives to continue doing so for the development of our nation.

Parents Vs. Professional Teacher

First, let us define the term teaching as a process of transmitting useful knowledge from one person to another. The statement claims that parents are the best in teaching, implying a comparison between professionally trained teachers and students’ parents, who are not professional teachers themselves.

To discuss Parents Vs. Professional Teacher, it is necessary to enumerate the factors the teaching process depends on:
1) Whether a teacher possesses the knowledge to be transmitted, and to what extent.
2) Whether a teacher is able to effectively transmit knowledge to students, or, in other words, how strong are the pedagogical skills of a teacher?
3) Whether a teacher practises the personal approach or works with students as with a mass.
4) How much time a teacher spends on a single student.

The first factor should be considered in the context of a particular kind of knowledge, while the other three may be considered out of this context. Let us analyze the last three factors first.

In most cases, trained teachers are more proficient in pedagogy because they have got the appropriate training. So, regarding this factor, professional teachers are better than parents.

The factor of using the personal approach could be related to the presence of pedagogical skills, but it makes sense to distinguish it as a separate factor, and further analysis reveals why. In most cases one’s parents will teach their child exactly that is necessary for him or her, while not every teacher works with one’s students personally. So, here parents are more promising if none of the other factors is taken into account.

Concerning the time one can spend working with a student, it strongly depends on the teacher’s load, e.g., the number of students in the class, and on the opposite side, it depends on how much time parents can spend at home. The teacher’s load depends on a particular school, syllabus, and so forth. The time a parent can spend at home depends on the kind of job one has. It is hard to say who is the best in general if take into account only this factor.

To analyze the impact of the first factor, let us classify the types of knowledge.
a) A fundamental knowledge, which includes knowledge of how to walk, to speak, to brush one’s teeth, and so forth.
b) School-Level knowledge.
c) A special college- or university-level knowledge.

Every adult person possesses fundamental knowledge, so here neither professional teachers nor parents have an advantage. But not every parent may still have a good knowledge of everything that is being taught at school, though some parents have. And it’s much less probable, that parents possess the knowledge being taught at the college or university their child is studying at. So, the more specific the knowledge, the more advantageous professional teachers are.

In each particular case, it is necessary to consider at least all the factors listed above to answer the question of who is the best in teaching – professional teachers or student’s parents. A universal answer to this question doesn’t exist.

A Little Learning is a Dangerous Thing

We live in the age of superficiality every one wants to show that he is learned yet even he is shallow. The methods of showing that one is learned are interesting. One of them is to ignore all that others know. Another is to ignore the commonplace and concentrates on something odd and out of the way.

If somebody begins to discuss Jan Eyre our Wuthering heights say that you prefer the tenant o wild fell Hall. In this way, you will easily acquire a reputation for profound learning is the pitfall in to which the journalist in particular always falls. He must write airily of odd and remote in order to cancel his ignorance of the near and the classical. He has no leisure. His profession makes him acquainted with a mass of miscellaneous and haphazard knowledge which he compelled to reproduce in his articles with an air of knowing everything. The journalist is tempted to be readable and so he always tries to be original and unusual.

Is the Pierian suited for everyone? Can every one drink deep of it? The philosopher or the moral of science may do so with safety but of others, the Pierian spring makes my prigs.

Aldous Huxley is an essay in “Along the Road” gives an amusing account of an exhibition of arts and crafts which he saw at Munich. In that exhibition every applied art was represented furniture jewellery, ceramics and textile “The Germans” says Aldous Huxley know more about artistic styles of the past than any other people in the world and their art today is about as hopeless deary as any national art called well be. Its badness is in mathematical terms as a function of learned ness. This could be seen from such exhibitions as these. A Mexican pot decorated with Moorish arabesques, a black Forest peasant table standing on Egyptian legs, learning may be good for poets, politicians, philosophers had a business, men for the artist it is bad.

Good art demands inverse concentration and excessive knowledge tend that make the type of concentration that art demands difficult.

For the superficial knowledge of our own times, other things are responsible also. Men nowadays have become so mercenary that they are not willing to undertake any serious work that does not pay. Intellect is valued only as a key to material prosperity. “He wastes his money on books. What good are they to him? He is a carpenter, not a schoolmaster. Men do not realize that the brain is not a tool or exploiting our fellow men but. To follow knowledge like a sinking star beyond the most bound of human thought. The French have a beautiful phrase “la joie de vivire” parallel to we can invent other “la joie de savoir” the joy of knowledge is all unknown to money makers.

There are certain theories and dogmas which have diverted man and women from the pursuit of knowledge and make them content with their ignorance and stupidity. Religious teachers have made most of the dogmas. They have taught that man has a body and soul, but they have forgotten that man has, the mind also. Saint Basil is reported to have remarked very frankly “it is a matter of no interest to as whether the earth is a sphere or a cylinder or a disc.

With this exaltation of stupidity and ignorance, it is no wonder that we suffer from all shortcomings of little knowledge. Take such a glaring social evil of our country as early marriage. People marry early because so-called religions books have recommended this practice. They have to quote chapter and verse to support this idea. I call this one of the instances of little knowledge let them go behind the book into the mind of the author who made it. If they drank deeper of the Pierian spring they would be compelled to throw away early marriage.

Knowledge is long and life is short and even the best of us must be content to have only a little of it. If we could live for hundreds of years instead of a few deeds we could not have enough time to acquire all the knowledge that there is. All the ills of humanity arise from ignorance. With knowledge, we can at least overcome ignorance.

A quotation from A-Houseman in which he praises the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is worth pondering over. “Other desires perish in their gratification but the desire of knowledge never the eve is not satisfied with seeing nor the ear filled with hearing, other desires become the occasion of pain through death of the material to gratify them but not the desire of knowing the some of the things to be known is inexhaustible and however long we read we shall never come to the end of story books. So long as the mind of man is what is it will continue to excite in advancing on the unknown throughout the infinite field of the universe, and the tree of knowledge will remain forever, as it was, in the beginning, a tree to be desired to make me wise”.

The above-stated facts show that we should not be satisfied with what we have learnt. Because our knowledge is limited and knowledge itself is vast.

People Do Not Lack Strength; They Lack Will

The quote above was by Victor Hugo.

You look at the chocolate cake in the shop; one voice in your head says go on, buy it; the other voice in your head says no, there are far too many calories in that cake, buy something else. Which voice will you take notice of? Will you buy that cake or will you buy a healthy alternative? Many people find it difficult to stick to a diet, exercise regularly, cut down their alcohol intake or stop flashing that credit card. It really all comes down to willpower. How much willpower do you have? Can you say no?

There have been studies done to prove that your willpower is a limited resource and each of us only has so much of it. I remain to be convinced. Yes, these researchers came up with theories, but they were probably paid for their work and had to come up with something interesting. I may be totally wrong and I haven’t read the results in detail so if I am I apologise.

I still think there is a huge link between willpower and reward. If you stop smoking and save up the money you would have spent and a partner says they will match what you save, that’s a massive incentive for you to stop smoking. You could buy yourself a new wardrobe; you could go on a fabulous holiday; so there’s more chance of you succeeding. If you go on a diet, you will do better if a friend diets with you and you both join a slimming club. That holds for exercising too; go to the gym with a buddy and you will support each other and there will be less chance of you giving up. You will help encourage each other and celebrate when you drop that dress size and you can go shopping for that new outfit.

Motivation can be the key to success. When you begin a new challenge, you are all fired up and enthusiastic so the results are very positive. As time passes, you get disillusioned, progress is slow, that’s when you might give up. You need to set new goals, new targets and reward yourself each time you reach them. Perhaps you can go to the theatre, have a meal or something else that would keep you motivated and on track.

There is always the danger that you may replace one bad habit with another. People who give up smoking invariably put on weight. It’s not that smoking keeps them thin, it’s just that they reach for food when they would have been reaching for a cigarette.

Sleep is important. If you are tired you become irritable and again more likely to give up. Try to make sure you get a good quality sleep at night. You may have to change your routine or try the warm baths etc. If you are alert and refreshed you will be able to stay focussed and not give up.

Some people find it easy to exercise their willpower, but many more struggle. The more successful you are the easier it will be. So yes you can do it. Give yourself a treat and encourage your family and friends to help you too. Good luck. Don’t be like Oscar Wilde who said: “The only way to get rid of a temptation is to yield to it.” Be like Benjamin Franklin, “Energy and persistence conquer all things.”

Life is not worth the Price We Pay for it

What toll does it take, over time, if you get too little sleep; skip breakfast or settle for something unhealthy; struggle with a relentlessly challenging commute; attend meeting after meeting with no breaks in between; pump yourself up through the day with multiple cups of coffee or sugary snacks; deal with hundreds of emails that accumulate in your inbox; remain at your desk for lunch if you eat lunch at all; push through fatigue in the afternoon; head home at night feeling exhausted, but continue to check email through the evening; work on the weekends; and limit your vacations to no more than a week or two, if you vacation at all?

Consider the story of the boiling frog. It may or may not be true, but the point it makes certainly is. Toss a frog into a pot of boiling water and it instinctively jumps out, self-protectively. Next, place the frog into a pot of cool water. Not surprisingly, it swims around, happily. Now heat the water up very gradually and what does the frog do? It acclimates to untenable circumstances — and slowly cooks. The frog doesn’t notice what’s happening to him until it’s too late.

We’re experiencing the same phenomenon. Facing ever more demand, complexity and uncertainty, our initial response is to push ourselves harder and more relentlessly, without taking account of the costs we’re incurring.

Physiologically, we move into hyperarousal — flooding our bodies with stress hormones such as adrenalin and cortisol. It’s an automatic response to the experience of threat, and it provides an instant source of energy.

“Allostatic load” is a term coined by the neuroscientist Bruce McEwen that refers to the physiological consequences — most especially on the brain — of chronic exposure to relentless demand. When fight-or-flight hormones circulate in our body for too long, keeping our arousal high, they become toxic — not just physically, but also emotionally and mentally.

The most immediate problem with the fight-or-flight state is that our pre-frontal cortex begins to shut down. We become reactive rather than reflective. We lose precisely what we need most in these complex times: the capacity to think analytically and imaginatively; to embrace nuance and paradox rather than choosing up sides and to take a long-term perspective rather than making the most expedient choice.

It’s not good for us, and it’s not good for companies.

The antidote, well understood by trauma researchers, is to give people practical and specific ways to lower their physiological arousal — to get out of fight or flight. If you’re hyperaroused — and vast numbers of us are, much of the time — you must learn first how to regularly relax your body. Only then is it possible to calm your emotions, quiet your mind and make wiser choices?

In the trauma community, it’s called self-soothing. In the workplace, it’s about using simple strategies to buffer relentless demand by taking more conscious and regular care of our most basic needs.

Our most fundamental physical needs, beyond food, are to move and to rest. Sleep is the foundation of physical energy. All but a tiny percentage of us require at least 7-8 hours a night to feel fully rested and even small amounts of sleep deprivation take a significant cognitive toll.

We also operate best when we take renewal breaks at least every 90 minutes during the day. Breathing deeply for as little as a minute, for example, can completely clear the body of cortisol.

Movement is a second, more active way to change channels and to build physical capacity. The best way to move is to regularly challenge our current comfort zone — to push our heart rate into the aerobic and anaerobic zones at least four times a week, for at least 20 minutes at a time, and to train with weights at least twice a week.

Even if you don’t do that, it’s immensely valuable to get up and move at least several times during the day — and even better, to get outside. Above all, our goal should be to increase our oscillation over the course of the day — moving between relaxation at one end, and more active forms of energy expenditure at the other.

At the emotional level, our core need is to feel safe, secure and valued. The most reliable way to ensure that happens is to move flexibly between valuing, appreciating and taking care of others — which builds trust and appreciation — and taking care of ourselves. One without the other is insufficient. We need to regularly refuel ourselves with positive emotions just as much as we need to renew ourselves physically. The more attentive we are to meeting these core needs, the less likely we are to feel overwhelmed and exhausted, and the more sustainably high-performing we’re capable of becoming.

Disadvantages of Deforestation

Deforestation occurs when forest land is cleared, usually to harvest the timber or clear space for agricultural operations. More than 25 per cent of the land on Earth is covered by forests, but millions of hectares of this ecosystem are destroyed every year, according to the University of Michigan.

Over half of the world’s forests are found in just seven countries: Brazil, Canada, China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Russia, and the United States. Therefore, while the disadvantages of deforestation are global, the decision to clear forest land belongs to only a handful of governments.

The disadvantages to deforestation are an increased amount of carbon dioxide emissions and soil erosion as well as the destruction of forest habitat and the loss of biological diversity of both plants and animals.

During photosynthesis, trees and other plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, convert it into sugar molecules, and release oxygen. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Forests remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and help mitigate the greenhouse effect.

When trees are cut down, the carbon dioxide they previously absorbed and stored is released back into the atmosphere. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 17 per cent of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere is due to deforestation and the decay of trees and other biomass.

The roots of plants anchor soil to the ground. When deforestation occurs, topsoil erosion increases because there are no roots to hold the soil in place, and no vegetation to break the force of falling rain.

According to the World Wildlife Fund, half of the world’s topsoil has eroded away within the past 150 years. Erosion washes soil into nearby waterways, where the increased sedimentation and pollution damages marine habitats and affects local populations that fish or drink from the water source.

Additionally, the erosion of topsoil decreases soil fertility and hurts the very agricultural efforts that are often the impetus for deforestation. In the Amazon rainforest, pasture and cropland dominate the clearcut sections of forest. Sedimentary runoff from deforested areas contaminates rivers, affecting everyone who uses that water.

Deforestation fractures forest habitat. Animals use trees for food, shelter, and nesting sites. Without trees, animals must find other places to survive or they will perish. Animal populations suffer dramatic losses when their natural habitat is altered.

In tropical rainforests, where species diversity is highest, habitat fragmentation and loss can have significant effects on animal populations. For example, deforestation threatens the habitats of the howler monkey in the Amazon rainforest and the northern spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

Forests provide homes for numerous animal species, but they are also home to countless plant species. Scientists at the University of Michigan estimate that only one per cent of the plant species in tropical rainforests have been screened for potential medicinal use.

Of the small percentage of plants that have been studied, several have proven to have medicinal benefits. For example, medicine made from a species of wild periwinkle growing in Madagascar’s forests is now being used to treat patients with leukaemia and other forms of cancer.

Deforestation threatens future scientific discoveries of species that could be useful to mankind.

Advertisement – It’s Advantages & Disadvantages

‘Necessity is the mother of invention’ is an oft-quoted saying. But nowadays the reverse of it is truer. In modern business, ‘invention’ is the mother of necessity.

In this age of machinery, new things are produced every day. The market is created for these things through advertisement Businessmen advertise their goods in various ways and thus spread a knowledge of their goods among the customers.

It is through an advertisement that people begin to feel a need for even those goods of which they had never heard before. Advertisement creates demand. it is the backbone of commerce and Industry. No business can stay in the business world without advertisement. A successful businessman is one who snatches away money from even the most miserly and reluctant customer. Thus, the business world rotates on the pivot of advertisement.

As the world is progressing, so the means of advertisement are also increasing. We all know that big poster is pasted on the walls, and handbills are distributed to advance the sale of goods. Walls are painted and big signboards are displayed on crossings and prominent places to serve this purpose. In the cinema hall, first of all, we see the advertisement slides.

A major part of the daily newspapers is full of advertisement. ‘Situations Vacant’, ‘Tender Notice’, ‘Educational’, ‘Lost and Found’, ‘Matrimonial’, cinema advertisements, and advertisements of so many other commodities are regular features of all newspapers. Radio and Television also are being used as a means of commercial advertisement.

A good advertisement must have certain qualities. First, it should be based on human psychology. A thing meant for ladies, should be advertised in such a way that they are attracted towards it. If men are to be customers, then it should appeal to their tastes. Goods for different income groups should be advertised, taking into consideration their purchasing power. A motor car is a thing for the rich. Its advertisement must be touching the mentality of the rich. Usha Sewing Machine should be advertised in such a way that the family man, with ordinary income, may feel the economic advantages of the investment of his money on it.

Secondly, advertisements should be attractive. This is very essential. People look towards an advertisement only if it is eye-catching. Good, interesting pictures are very effective form this point of view. We all know about ‘Sanforised cloth’. The advertisements to show that the quality of the cloth displays a man wearing a suit of non-sanforized cloth. He appears funny and uncomfortable as his suit has gone out of fit by washing. Another man is shown wearing a suit of ‘Sanforised cloth’. How smart and active he appears. We immediately learn that ‘Sanforised cloth’ is best because it does not shrink. So a good advertisement must be interesting, attractive and eye-catching. But proper sanctity must be maintained and unnecessary exposure must be avoided. It must also be frequently repeated, otherwise people forget all about the goods advertised.

People do not like to waste their time on things which do not concern them. So to be successful, the advertisement must be brief. Long descriptive stories or certificates of praise about certain thing do not make a good advertisement. This is an important point in advertising and a good advertiser must keep it in mind.

Advertisements are not concerned with the good or bad quality of goods. Even the most injurious goods are advertised these days. Advertisements for undesirable drugs and medicines and indecent literature, so common. They simply cheat the public. So we should be careful while purchasing an advertised article. We should use our own mind, instead of blindly following the advice of the advertisement.

In our country, the art of advertising is in its infancy. in progressive countries, like America, big business concerns have specialists and experts for this purpose. They spend huge amounts of money on advertisement. But it is not so in our country. Some businessmen consider their products to be very superior. They think advertisement unnecessary. This is undesirable. To get success in business every big or small business-concern must make effective use of the art of advertising goods. To run a business without its aid is not possible in the modern age.

Computer in the Service of Humanity

Computers are now a fact of life. Computers have created a very effective information system to help streamline the management of an organization. This makes it a much-needed tool for every business, banking, government, entertainment, daily life, industry, education, and administration. It can be said of all large organizations, whether the department government or private, use a computer for a variety of their daily business and it is the fastest growing industries in the world today.

Each organization usually has one or more large computer systems and a number of microcomputers. The system is a great computer for data processing tasks, while many small microcomputers to use like word processing. Computers have become part of our lives is essential. In general, the use of computers can be divided into several groups.

The first extensive data processing in order to avoid abuse of the workload while increasing the effectiveness of trade and industry. Both as a prediction for decision-makers on the planning, development, and growth based on past data. In addition, it also as a means of control and non-power electric system based on our needs, such as closing the air conditioner if the temperature is lower and save energy, connecting the parts and so on. It is also a link to link data around the world in a short time.

For the fields of use mentioned above, the programs needed to be developed, tested and implemented on a computer. The various programs should be written and linked to form a system for specific tasks. In general, the system means that the software and hardware. As the system -the system used to process the data or information, call our information systems.

It is known that the rapid growth of computer usage time. In all areas have been using computers to launch a business.

The use of computers among maximum practised in the field of business. In fact, small businesses also use the computer as there are now very cheap microcomputers. Business organizations now have a number of facts and a lot of numbers to be processed. So many businesses have started using the computer, for example, to calculate the salary, to identify the goods sold and are still in stock, to issue and send or receive business statements, letters, invoices and more.

The use of computers and office equipment to assist other managers, clerks, and the management of office automation mentioned. One of them is a word processing type of electronic method that enables us to produce and edit letters, reports, documents, and other than work in a few seconds to type manually.

Many of the office to produce standard letters, such as payment of the balance, invitations and more. In addition, local business organizations to use computers to create, save, and send envoys to a particular place. The advantages of using computers in this area, clearly it is very important in a business organization.

Processing data involving savings accounts, fixed deposits, loans, investments, profitability analysis, and so on are among the organizations operating a budget. The measures used are standard and recurrent. And with that, the financial institution is the first user is aware of the importance of computers to save time. Use of financial institutions including electronic fund transfer activities, for example, a bank has a terminal in each branch in the country and also in supermarkets, petrol stations, schools, factories, homes, hotels, and so on.

The company will move employees’ salary into the account by entering employee identification numbers then pay the money transferred into the account supermarkets, hotels, or gas station when making a purchase. Money transfer facility is referred to the electronic transfer of money is very effective to use is a safe and quick method for financial transactions.

With the facility, known as ETC is also individual can issue, transfer, and include cash or checks to the current balance at any time. Clearly, the main purpose of the use of computers in financial institutions can assist in arranging the affairs of clients and provide services better and more efficient, reduce fraud in financial transactions also eliminate cash transactions involving the community with the goal to create a cashless society.

The industry is a lot of benefit from the use of computers and the development of a human machine that ‘robot’. Industrial production, for example, requires a lot of computers to process data collected from employees, customers, sales, product information, production schedules, and so on. Yes said the computer used to control the production process.

Especially the production of information processing inventory control to keep the latest information about the remaining inventory of raw materials and finished goods used to determine the value of inventory and stock status. This computer can alert the staff involved if he should order the raw materials and when to deliver the goods completed to the customer.

Similarly, to store information about the structure of an item, but the material requirement planning processes also use computers to facilitate the work. Appear in the computer industry is very broad and also affect the development of industry in a country.

Now in this era of science and technology become more advanced, the computer may take over the role of books in the store and disseminate knowledge to the public. In other words, the computer will change the way we learn and the way we store knowledge. Hal-related matters such as student registration, class scheduling, processing of examination results, students ‘and teachers’ personal storage can be implemented by a computer with a fast and effective in helping the administration. Now exams results were processed by computer. The IPT also the duties of office automation, processing, scientific research results and also use the computer. In fact, cataloguing books in libraries also apply to computer use.

Last but not least is used for teaching and learning process is not only at institutions of higher learning in the schools, both for teaching and studying computer-assisted education on computer is very emphasized that in the field of education for helping in the administrative process, research is what is important is the ease and help students and teachers in the teaching and learning.

Hospitals and clinics use computers to store patient records, scheduling doctors, nurses and other personnel, inventory and purchase of medicines, medical research and medical diagnosis. Applications of computer-based equipment or use of information technology have help doctors to diagnose diseases. It is clear that the use of computers in the medical field to provide solutions to complex problems.

Among the new computer technology that provides assistance to those who are disabled. Microprocessor-based voice systems assist people with disabilities speaking with a terminal that directs the computer to perform a verbal task. Similarly, the development of computers has helped the blind to see, the deaf to communicate, whether with the help of speech synthesizer or using the keyboard. This can help them become more active and can do what they could not do before. Besides works of traditional data processing, such as issuing bills of patients, medical statistics and scheduling of staff and others have also streamlined and processed by computer.

Hospital Information System that is used can be stored in a centralized patient database. In fact, the use of information technology the computer is programmed to culture and analyze bacteria, viruses, and other infectious agents to automatically detect and identify a disease thus enabling the hospitals and laboratories to begin treatment. For example, the Computer Help Demography machine (Computer Aided Demography, CAT) used for the purpose. Similarly, computers are used for a patient to oversee psychological variables such as blood pressure, body temperature, ECG (Electro-Cardiograph) and sounded a warning if something unusual happens.

For this purpose the computer to read different variables and make comparison with standard values. If there is something extraordinary happens the computer will draw the attention of doctors and nurses to issue a warning. Clearly, it was found that the computer has a wide range of accommodation in the medical field.

Computers have been used in the legislative process in recent years. The use of the most important is the preparation of documents using a word processor. The use of computer accounting legislation also includes processing to produce weekly and monthly reports, keep records of payments consulting, the diary for the latest attorney information consumers about the various court procedures and also to keep records of users.

As this area is very complicated, it is the need to retrieve the required information either on the journal of law, an important case, scale, and statistics or important decisions for the purpose of making the decision to retain legal data bank. Thus the use of one computer will help lawyers and trainee lawyers and law students find relevant data without wasting time and get better service.

Government sector is one of the largest users of computer usage practices in implementing administrative matters. All the necessary data can be obtained in a short time such as information about people, services, economic planning, and land development projects and for planning and decision making. Through long-term weather forecasting computer can now be done. With tie loss of life can be because of better information and faster.

“The success of Neil Am strong on July 23, 1969 landing on the moon is also made possible with the help of computers used to design spacecraft, space for clothes astronauts, and flight schedules”. This shows the very important use of computers in the field of space transportation. Service tax and income tax collection were simplified by using the computer. Keeping records of taxpayers who do it manually, and bring many problems have been addressed with the use of computer and services can make the task more efficiently and quickly.

Similarly, in the military, use of computer store inventory held until the war simulation on the screen. Computers are also used to follow the movement of the enemy in the border areas. Traffic flow can be managed effectively by detecting the direction of traffic using the many tools of detection. In this way, if there are more vehicles from one direction, the computer will let the green light goes on for a suitable period of time.

“In the field of transport, Cosmos- 11 introduced by Mass by providing facilities for passengers to know the status including those booking hotel reservations, from anywhere in the world”. Similarly, business owners and vehicle registration can be performed with the use of computers. Many of all administrative affairs are managed by using the computer. This not only saves time but can do all things more practical.

Now the computer can be programmed to play music. Places of entertainment with music controlled by computer are cheaper and can be used at any time. Computers are also used to arrange the order of dance and music. Each game requires movement. Movement can best be obtained by a detailed analysis of a physical system.

Computers also can be programmed to depict images of high quality. Drawing using the computer speeds up the process of creating. The work of art can be done and made a review in a short time compared with traditional Kedah. Cartoon films produced by computers have grown so widely.

Microcomputer use also home to control the safety and control of air conditioning and lighting. The use of computers in the home allows housewife to get the latest information about fashion and can make orders to use supermarket with and video. In addition to budget planning and inventory at home. This is all to do with a microcomputer that is connected to the national data bank. Children can use computers to learn about school subjects or educational games. But it is clear that computers have become machines of information in our society.

The rapid development of science and technology has changed the pattern of life now. Everything, processing, gathering information, or any aspects of the various areas that were previously done manually, which gives a lot of risks has to be made more effective, faster, and more practical with the application or use of information technology or computer. Covering the use in various fields including business, financial institutions, industry, education, administration and other fields have the desire to realize develop each country.

The fact is, computers have become the heart and backbone of society today. Whatever the field, computing has a lot of people taken over the task. It will not only help in the calculations, store information, detect a decision also to increase efficiency and productivity. But they said it is now clear that the use of computers has been widely practised and used. In line with globalization and the borderless world, a computer is a machine in the information society is also the main artery of all machinery administration in any field.

Honesty Always Pays / Honesty is the Best Policy

A poor widow was living nearby a river in a tumble-down hut.  For, she had no wood to burn for warmth and no food to eat.  Anxo is the name of the boy that she is totally dependent on for food and wood.   She would ask the little boy to go fetch wood for warmth and food to eat.  The boy is small but hardworking and honest.  He runs, jumps barefoot, crosses a river in search of wood.  Rarely luck favoured him that he returns home with food that fills both his mother’s and his stomach. 

One day during one of his trips in search of food, he comes across a crooked stone.  Assuming the stone is dying because of the cold, he removes his jacket and covers the stone.  Soon, he rushes home and explains his mother about the stone.  Anoxo’s mother gets angry and scolds him saying that he is being foolish thinking a stone will die of cold.  Soon, she commands him to bring his jacket back.

Little Anxo rushes back to the woods to collect his jacket.  To his surprise, he finds the stone has grown bigger in size and a closer look at the stone reveals a box of silver coins under it.  Little Anxo, believes the money is stolen money and hence he throws the box full of silver coins into the river.  All coins reach the bottom of the river except for one which stays afloat.  The boy believing the coin is honest, collects it and reaches home. He explains his mother the entire story.  The mother gets frustrated and kicks him out shouting at him.  She commands him to fetch his own food and shelter going forward.  Little Anxo, feeling sad reaches a merchant named Benehero and starts working for him.  He would collect wood and cook for the rich merchant.  

One day the merchant sets off on a trip and asks the small boy what he wants from the foreign land.  The boy gives him the silver coin and requests the merchant to buy anything that is worth the silver coin. The merchant after finishing his business sets foot on his ship to return home.  Suddenly, he remembers that he needed to buy something for the boy.  He comes across an old woman who was dumping a cat into the sea.  The merchant purchases the cat from the old woman for the silver coin and sails off. 

Because of stormy weather, he had to lay down the anchor in some unknown foreign land.  People at the land had difficulty eating food because of rats.  The merchant then fetches the cat and releases on the foreign land.  Rats run for their lives and the foreign land becomes rat-free.  The locals beg the merchant for the services of a cat. The merchant agrees to provide the cat’s service for six hundred silver coins and makes the land rat-free.  He reaches home and hands away from the money and cat to the boy beside getting him married to his daughter as Little Anxo is now richer than the merchant himself.

Man Never Satisfies with What he has

Success always motivates a person. That’s why humans are always in a race to get more and more. Whereas, some people want to enjoy and satisfy with what they have. Personally, I think human never get satisfied and always hungry to get more and different. This essay will look at some of for and against of satisfaction of person’s need.

There are many factors influencing my views. Firstly, a successful person’s expectation of him gets increased. He wants to explore himself more and more. Due to jealously factor also a person wants more fame and status than others. For instance, a number of sportspersons besides sport get indulge in an advertisement for acting. As they want to expand themselves into the acting field also.

Moreover, due to the wide range of competition everyone is in a race to prove themselves better and perfect. Besides, as an ideal mind is the devil’s home. So people do not want to let them free. So they try different experiments in their life. Also, due to advancement in technology they want to learn more and different.

Every coin has two sides. Likewise, some people have opposite views. In their opinion, people get satisfied at some certain age of life. They want to enjoy their success and achievement with their near and dear ones. To get stability in life they stop catching more things. Another point is, also due to so many tension and pressure they want to take rest in life.

In a nutshell, I would like to say that different people think differently. In this particular case also, on a whole, we cannot support or go against either of two sides completely but still, I think person never get satisfied in his life. They always greed more and more.

Cheating Habit among Examinations

One of the most common features of examinations is the involvement of students in cheating. When students fail to prepare themselves well before an examination, they resort to cheating.

It is true that whenever rules are made, there are people who break them. An examination is a test where no one is allowed to consult the other and each question has to be answered by the child himself. Knowing the fact that this can’t be done, students cheat.

Cheating seems to delight the students but he ignores the fact that he is simply cheating his own conscience. He may go ahead and cheat but at some point in time, it definitely haunts him.

Cheating in exams is the curse our society is confronted with today. Students normally don’t work hard and don’t complete their studies. They join college just for enjoyment. When the time comes, they try to get a degree by cheating. In cheating, students, teachers, parents all are involved.

The habit of Cheating in exams can direct students in an unhealthy direction. It often results in students losing interest in the classes which they choose to cheat in. A numerous number of students who cheat tend not to pay attention in class since they plan on cheating.

Some students do not listen to lectures, read, or put forth any effort to do class work at all. That negative manner usually results in the student not learning anything. Students who cheat on tests are only hurting themselves. They would most likely need the information from the class to be successful in classes that will follow. Many college students pay for their education, and by cheating, they are carelessly throwing away their money. 

Students while away their time throughout the year and then become desperate when the examination approaches. Cheating is a short-cut to success.

However, in cheating the teachers, the students may pass the examination but he will never learn what was actually taught and he will always remain behind his class in every way.

It is interesting to see how students cheat. They plan the method for cheating. They write notes on slips of paper or scribble something on their palms or thighs. They stick notes into their socks and under their shirts.

Some even write down full answers on pieces of paper. Some carry their answers to the toilet and leave the slips of paper there. In the course of the examination, they go to the toilet and consult the sheets to locate the correct answers.

At Universities also cheating is a common practice. It is often accompanied by violence. Students carry pistols or knives with them and cheat openly. They scare the invigilator away by terrorizing him with the gun.

There is mass copying at times and such cases are dealt with, very severely. Police protection is sometimes provided to the invigilators.

Cheating greatly mars the sanctity of the examination. The exam is really a good means of evaluating one’s knowledge of all that is taught and it is, in fact, a good thing for students.

This is something students realize later in their lives. But while they are still students, they continue to adopt such unfair means of passing the examination and bring a great deal of harm to their school and most of all to themselves.

Even in some cases, teachers accept bribes and while conducting exams they allow the candidates to cheat. Parents give a lot of money to their children for bribing teachers. In fact, these students are snatching the right of industrious and intelligent students.

Teachers who should work to end this habit are involved in this habit. Parents should try to instil hard work and honesty in the characters of the students. Nothing is impossible if we work hard. You can achieve what we want. You can get marks by cheating but your conscious will never forgive you.

As Muslims, our religion does not allow us to steal and cheating which is no less than robbery and theft. Efforts and hard work develop talents and laziness destroy them. Always achieve your degree through hard work. It does not matter if you fail at your attempt. You should try again. That is the key to success.

Terrorism and Pakistan (This Essay Covers Terrorism in Pakistan from Different Aspects)

Terrorism is often construed as a well-thought-out, extreme form of violence to perceived injustices. The after effects of terrorism are usually reported without understanding the underlying psychological and social determinants of the terrorist act.

Since ‘9/11’ Pakistan has been at the epicentre of both terrorism and the war against it. This special paper helps to explain the psychosocial perspective of terrorism in Pakistan that leads to violent radicalisation. It identifies the terrorist acts in the background of Pakistan’s history, current geopolitical and social scenario. The findings may also act as a guide on addressing this core issue.

Most nations are unable to reach a consensus on a legally binding definition of ‘terrorism.’ The term seems emotionally charged and, as such, governments have been devising their own definitions. So far the United Nations has been unable to devise an internationally agreed-upon definition of terrorism.

Terrorism is suggested to be ‘the use of intimidation or fear for the advancement of political objectives’. Since the ‘9/11’ incident, Muslim countries, in particular, feel emotionally threatened with the word terrorism and perceive it as synonymous with the acts of terror carried out by so-called Muslim extremist groups. This is further complemented in the media by the unjust linking of such horrendous terror attacks to Islamic Jihad.

Terrorism has brought an enormous burden on South Asian countries through the adverse impacts on their social, economic, political and physical infrastructure. Pakistan has suffered particularly excessively from the social, economic and human costs due to terrorism.

Surprisingly, Pakistan is portrayed as being on the front line in the international war against terrorism and at the same time has been wrongly labelled as a sponsor of international terrorism. Terrorism in Pakistan is a multidimensional phenomenon and, among many precipitating factors, the psychosocial factors play an important role. This paper attempts to address what we believe are significant psychosocial determinants to terrorism in Pakistan.

Pakistan is a Muslim-majority nation in southeast Asia with India to its east, Iran and Afghanistan to its west, China and the landlocked Asian countries to its north and the Arabian Sea to its south. Pakistan gained independence from British colonial rule in 1947 and is the only Muslim country with nuclear weapons – a nuclear device was detonated in 1998 – and is thus part of the informally named ‘nuclear club.’ Pakistan is a federation of four provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Balochistan), a capital territory (Islamabad) and a group of federally administered tribal areas in the north-west, along with the disputed area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

Pakistan is the world’s sixth most populous country with an average population density of 229 people per km2 (World Bank indicators. Since independence in 1947, Pakistan has been challenged not only by the trauma inflicted by its colonial occupiers but also by the mass murder of people migrating to the ‘new’ country. Hundreds of thousands of people were killed, looted, raped or burnt alive. At the same time, the stability of this fledgling country was significantly hampered by the lack of resources. Just a few years later, due to political instability and separatist movements and terrorism, the east wing of the country was separated from Pakistan; this paved the way to the creation of a new country, Bangladesh, in 1971.

The Soviet-Afghan war, which began in 1979, provided a breeding ground for terrorism in the region. A fundamental change was witnessed that altered the very character of the existing Pakistani society. Withdrawal of the Soviets revealed a Pakistani society that had been forced into one of violence and weaponisation, plaguing Pakistan with so-called ‘Kalashnikov culture’ and ‘Talibanisation’.

Pakistan’s social landscape has for the most part been plagued with illiteracy, disease, insecurity and injustice. Since the 9/11 incident, Pakistan has been intricately linked with the many facets of the ‘war on terrorism.’ Some argue that Pakistan is a breeding ground for terrorist outfits, but it is certain that all of this havoc has resulted in the significant loss of innocent lives as well as the loss of economic revenue. These fragile conditions provide a fertile ground for terrorism to grow.

The act of carrying out terrorist activity does not come from a single moment of inspiration but rather from a complex process of cognitive accommodation and assimilation over accumulating steps. It is wrongly reduction is to label the terrorists as mad or psychopaths.

Terrorists’ motivation may involve a deep, underlying quest for personal meaning and significance. Several analyses of such motives have appeared in recent years. There are differences in these analyses regarding the type and variety of motivational factors identified as critical to terrorism. Some authors identified a singular motivation as crucial; others listed a ‘cocktail’ of motives.

The socioeconomic adversity combined with political challenges were bound to have a detrimental impact on the psyche of the average Pakistani. A terrorist adopts a dichotomous way of identifying their victims, the black-and-white thought that ‘I am good’ and ‘you are evil,’ with no intermediary shades of grey. This thinking leaves no doubt in their minds and they find it easier to kill their opponents with little or no sense of remorse or guilt.

The unmanned army drone strikes killed and maimed thousands of innocent civilians in poor and difficult to access regions of Pakistan. This infuriated people, leading them to take up arms against the perceived aggressors. This triggering of the relatives of the deceased to engage in such activity is the culture of revenge in Pakistan, which unfortunately can last for generations.

Self-sacrifice and martyrdom have been explicitly used in almost all religions and is aggressively exploited by terrorist outfits who groom suicide bombers using the ideology of Islamist martyrdom. Some have argued that suicide bombers may actually be clinically suicidal and attempting to escape personal impasse.

In grooming young impressionable adolescents, extremist organisations brainwash these adolescents into believing that the ultimate self-sacrifice by suicide bombing will elevate their stature in the eyes of God and send them straight to heaven. This is associated with massive financial compensations to the deceased family.

Terrorist organisations in Pakistan, through this process of brainwashing, have been able to convert young impressionable Muslim adolescents into a ‘suicide bomber in six weeks’. In the current scenario of the existing war on terror, this complex process of recruiting young adolescents as suicide bombers seems irreversible.

In the West, Madrassas (Islamic religious schools) have gained a reputation of being a sinister influence on young impressionable Muslims. These institutions are not completely regulated and can vary from a single room to large institutions offering schooling and boarding to hundreds of students at a time. A survey of just over 50000 households in Pakistan found that children in

Urdu-medium government schools and madrassas were from poorer households than those in English-medium private schools. The primary reason for parents to send their children to madrassas as opposed to mainstream schools was that these institutions provided a good Islamic education. The second most common reason was that the madrassa provided education that is low in cost along with the provision of food and clothing.

Another survey indicated that in Pakistan only a minority of the religious schools promoted an extremist view of Islam (Bano, 2007). Interrogation of 79 terrorists involved in anti-Western attacks found that very few had attended a madrassa. This suggests that terrorist groups may selectively recruit better-qualified people for technically demanding tasks (Bergen & Pandey, 2006). However, the religious seminaries have been implicated as playing the role of recruitment centres for the suicide bombers (Nizami et al, 2014).

In an effort to break this incorrect perception the Darul Uloom Deoband, the largest Islamic seminary in the world hosted an anti-terrorism conference in 2008. This was attended by 6000 Imams declaring that ‘Islam is a religion of mercy for all humanity. Islam sternly condemns all kinds of oppression, violence and terrorism. It has regarded oppression, mischief, rioting and murder among sins and crimes’.

However, it is yet to be ascertained how many religious schools in Pakistan adopted this school of thought. With the revolution in the world of information technology, experts agree that the internet played an important role in the radicalisation and self-recruitment process into terrorist groups. Messages and videos on jihadi websites target the ‘soft spots’ of potential recruits and inflame their imagination.

With both mental disorder and terrorism in Pakistan being highly prevalent, it would be a fair assumption that the two may have a causal relationship. Walter Laqueur wrote that ‘all terrorists believe in conspiracies by the powerful, hostile forces and suffer from some form of delusion and persecution mania…The element of… madness plays an important role in terrorism’.

However, apart from certain pathological cases, a causal connection between an individual’s mental disorder and engagement in terrorist activity could not be established. However, there can be a connection between an individual engaging in terrorist activity and developing a mental disorder as mental disorders worsen in stress, anxiety and depression.

The adverse impacts of terrorism lead the masses to anomie and create a tendency towards suicide and mental illnesses. Poor health, depressive symptoms, risky behaviours in young adults, personality variables, social inequalities, criminality, social networks and international foreign policy have all been proposed to be influential drivers for grievances that lead to radicalisation and terrorism.

It may well be that individuals with mild depression would be a better target for gradual psychological moulding. Female suicide bombers who are predominantly motivated by revenge as opposed to their male counterparts may have some degree of clinical depression. Personality traits are useless as predictors for understanding why people become terrorists. However, personality traits and environmental conditions are the contributing factors for terrorism. There are protective and modifiable risk factors early on the path towards radicalisation. The benefits of early intervention have far-reaching implications for preventing significant depressive symptoms, promoting wellbeing and perhaps social capital.

By understanding, appreciating and addressing the psychosocial factors contributing to terrorism in Pakistan, one may find long-lasting solutions to the fall out on Pakistan’s war against terror. This war has led to a loss of innocent human lives, compounded by the deep psychological scars for survivors which will undoubtedly persist for generations to come.

An ongoing, concerted effort to gain peace and security in the region is essential and is the only way to counteract the revenge attacks and further brainwashing of young impressionable youths. These psychological determinants, however, are markedly different than terrorist activities in Western countries, where it seems that a different set of psychological rules apply.

(Earthquake) Disasters in Pakistan

Pakistan is facing natural disasters since its inception. The different kinds of disasters like; floods, earthquakes and droughts. The flood in 1972, was the most destructive and catastrophic that made homeless more than five millions people.

Then in 2010, the severity of this natural calamity was more than in the past. One-fourth part of Pakistan was affected by this flood and more than ten million people remained homeless. The south part of the country, which is agriculture based and has poor people, faced its worst history.

In 2005, earthquake in northern areas hit the vast population, almost a million people died and five million lost their homes, properties and business. These disasters effects every tier of life as economic, social, financial and agricultural. Pakistan’s economy that was already in the worst conditions, has become poorer than the past.

The growth of Pakistan’s economy in 2006-2007 was almost 6% annually, but now it is only 3%. The flood of 2010 has severally smashed the agriculture sector which is the backbone of Pakistan. More than 60% population of the country depends upon the agriculture sector. The exports like textile goods, wheat and fruits etc of the country is also directly attached to this sector. So that industrial sector to has been gone one step back instead of ahead.

There is less aid from the international community because of the world’s financial crisis, so it makes harder for Pakistan to meet its future developmental targets. Now Pakistan has to cut its developmental budget and has to reconstruct the destructive areas.

Therefore, the need of the hour is that the government should take steps to control these calamities. It should build dams and embankments to save populated areas and early warning system and shifting of people to a save place.

Economic Situation in Pakistan

Many discussions regarding the deteriorating situation of the Pakistani economy have surfaced since the devaluation of Pakistani rupee against the US dollar in the domestic market. Subsequently, oil prices increased significantly by 9.5pc, which caused an uproar within the nation. While some politicians and journalists have started to criticise the last government for this situation and they have, in turn, defended themselves by putting the entire blame on the prior ones, many people are concerned about how Pakistan will run in the future and what steps should be taken to improve this economic blight.

Currently, Pakistan’s economy is going through a rough patch. Some economic parameters are declining while others remain somewhat stagnant. The resultant situation is worrisome as slow economic growth and increasing fiscal imbalance is preventing the government to cater to the needs of the growing population.

The Pakistani rupee has been devaluing since December 2017 and has lost almost reached 157 Vs. Dollar by now. While, in December, the value of rupee per US dollar was almost 105 but it observed a steep rise reaching 119.84 in June 2018. This was a great shock to the macroeconomic situation as it gave rise to many more problems our economy is currently facing.

According to data combined by Bloomberg, the Pakistani rupee was Asia’s worst-performing currency this year. Some analysts expect the currency to drop further. Standard Chartered PLC predicts that the rupee will fall to 125 per dollar by the end of the year and International Monetary Fund may request authorities to weaken it even further.

Currency devaluation has further speculated that the country might need support from the IMF as reported by the organisation itself according to which Pakistan’s external debt is expected to climb up to 103 billion dollars by June 2019. Pakistan’s public debt would remain higher than the limit prescribed in the revised Fiscal Responsibility and Debt Limitation Act. CPEC related outflows have elevated current account deficit and risen external debt servicing and this may lead to higher external financing needs in the future. 

The country requires paying $12 billion in the first half of 2018 as per its liabilities. Gross fiscal financing needs will likely exceed 30pc of GDP from 2018-19 onwards, in part reflecting increased debt service obligations. All this has led to growing challenges to arrange foreign loans. The IMF also said that “While the level of external debt has remained moderate, continued mobilisation of external financing at favourable rates could become more challenging in the period ahead against the background of rising international interest rates and increasing financing needs”.

Moreover, our foreign exchange reserves are eroding. Foreign exchange reserves held by the State Bank of Pakistan were shrinking by 3pc on a weekly basis, according to data released by the central bank in the month of May. The decrease in reserves was attributed to external debt servicing and other official payments. Reserves have dropped by about a fifth in the past year to reach $13.5 billion. Zubair Ghulam Hussain, chief executive officer at Insight Securities Pvt in Karachi, has said “It was becoming increasingly difficult to manage the local currency at the current level with dropping forex reserves’’. The nation’s current-account deficit had become sizable and foreign debt repayment obligations are also rising. CPEC investments could accelerate the build-up of related external payment obligations, deteriorating Pakistan’s capacity to repay at a faster pace. Furthermore, faster depletion of foreign exchange reserves will have adverse effects on economic growth. A further decline in reserves is predicted even after $2.5 billion of borrowing.

The World Bank states that Pakistan’s inflation is expected to rise in the fiscal year 2018-2019 and will remain high till the fiscal year 2020. The outcome of the devaluation of Pakistan rupee against US dollar in the domestic market incidentally coincided with a rise in the crude oil prices in the global market resulting in an upward trend in oil prices from January 2018. The trend will cause an increase in the manufacturing and transportation cost resulting in a price hike of all the commodities produced locally.

Apart from this, the country’s economy is facing a sizable increase in current account deficit and fiscal deficit. The IMF states “In the absence of strong consolidation measures, the fiscal deficit is expected to remain close to 6pc of GDP in the medium term, resulting in elevated debt levels”.Current account deficit is expected to remain under stress as the trade deficit is predicted to stay at an elevated level during the fiscal year 2018-19. The influx of foreign shipments, however, remains on the higher side due to heavy imports of machinery and other construction material for multi-billion dollar projects under CPEC. 

On the other hand, the balance of payments issue may pose very serious risks to the economy during the next fiscal year, mostly because of ballooning deficits and erosion in foreign exchange reserves down the line. Keeping in view the liquidity position, the government may be left with no choice but to cut its non-development and administrative expenditures to reduce the fiscal deficit. The State Bank predicts that external and fiscal accounts will remain under pressure because of an increase in import demand and public spending by provincial governments to complete development projects before the upcoming general elections. Pakistan is also facing low levels of foreign direct investment which increased just by 5pc to $2.41 billion in the fiscal year ended on 30 June 2017 as compared to $2.30 billion in the previous year.

However, there is no major change in extreme issues like electricity and gas shortage, unemployment and poverty. The supply of power to industrial and residential consumers is expected to improve considerably with new power plants likely to become operational in 2018 and beyond. Moreover, developments like import of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to improve the shortage of gas for the industrial sector and the addition of a second LNG terminal at Port Qasim would go a long way in boosting the economy. Furthermore, recent economic developments have helped the country’s GDP growth by 0.8 percentage points over the previous year, touching 5.4pc in the fiscal year 2017.

Presently, the caretaker government admits that it is facing daunting economic challenges. The problem which arises here is that the role of the caretaker government is largely ceremonial and they are constitutionally given limited decision-making power on major policy issues. Their primary responsibility is to hold elections on time and to ensure the day-to-day affairs of government continue apace during the interim between successive governments.

Thus the issue of primary importance to be addressed by the new government is to take Pakistan out of this vicious circle. The challenge is to see whether Imran Khan sticks to his vows of not taking any further loan from the IMF or the new ruling party would have no choice but to resort to procuring more heaps of dollars to run the country’s economy.`

Necessity is the Mother of Invention

“Necessity is the mother of invention”, is the English proverb written by the unknown author in 1591. It is used by various people in their books with different wording and different language but having the same meaning that necessity compels people to invent new things.

Since the beginning, people are creating and inventing some creations and inventions for fulfilling the basic requirements of them. When people were afraid of darkness they created a fire when they felt hungry started to cook food on fire, when they felt hot or cold started to make a house for shelter, the idea of agriculture led them to build plough and hoe, etc. To reach somewhere faster from one place to another by the way of land, people brought the idea of using wheels and by the way of water, they invented boat. These were the primary inventions for fulfilling the basic needs of people.

Later on, the technological inventions were created which have changed the condition of the entire world completely. The invention of the electric bulb was one of the major creations by a human being which led many more creations in future like gravitational force, the idea of steam behind the making of railway engine and creation of the telephone was some of the biggest achievements by people. Achievement in the technology of photography was the continuous efforts of various people and later this technology became the source for new inventions like television and cinematography.

The idea of going somewhere by air was the matter of laugh at that time but the famous scientists “The Wright Brothers” made it possible by making glider for flying in the sky. Thus in order to fulfil the needs or expectations, people have invented something new and exciting always and made our life full of convenience and smoothness.

Though each and every invention was created and invented for the betterment of human life and this proved almost in all cases either in the case of face to face conversation between people, who are sitting at a far distance or to reach somewhere in less time covering the distance of thousands of miles. Thus overall there is a positive effect of inventions on our lives but some inventions led people to become lazy and more expected due to an increased number of appliances and machined that helps us in doing our daily routine works.

In spite of above all, many social issues have been raised due to new inventions and technologies. Each technology contains some bad effects too, if not used in a proper way like:

  1. Pollution: Biggest loss of nature in terms of pollution, due to the increased number of factories, industries, fuel operated vehicles, steamed engines, etc.
  2. The increased population at a developed place: people get attracted by those places where new technologies and techniques are operated like in Metro cities.
  3. Child Labour: Advanced technology and an increased number of working places require more man force and that led people to start their professional career as labour at a very low age.
  4. Chemical attack: Invention of hazardous chemicals led the invention of an atomic bomb like nuclear and hydrogen bomb which can destroy the major part of the world in a few seconds.
  5. Increased crime, offence and violence: Invention of gun, pistol, rifles and other weapons become the reason for increased crime and violence in the whole world.
  6. Inventions of drugs, alcohol has affected millions of people especially the youth who sometimes forced to do the dangerous crime.

Invention happens to fulfil the need of people in some manner to make them comfortable and to provide them with a kind of security in life. Without necessity, inventions are not possible. Use of inventions should be in the right manner so that it can be beneficial for all and does not affect people negatively.

Use of Internet in Young Generation

There is a saying among the baby boomer generation, that if you want to learn how to use computers and the internet, go ask your grandchildren to teach you.

An estimated 100% of all young people use computers with more than 90% regularly using the internet. Much of this internet use is tied to homework and websites needed to do research. However, the internet is also the way most kids connect after school using social networks such as MySpace or Facebook. The kids communicate through chat rooms and emails, while also posting comments on their friends’ walls. Internet usage is so pervasive that many experts, scientists and psychologist have begun to study what effect it has on the lives of young people in general.

With so much social action taking place from behind a computer screen, adults and teachers are concerned about the loss of social skills among young people. In other words, the ability to communicate up close and personal with friends and family is becoming extinct. Young people simply don’t know how to hold a conversation.

Take away a kid’s cell phone or computer and they tend to withdraw, don’t know what to do with their hands, become sullen. Hours in front of a computer on the internet also lends to the obesity problem plaguing America and the rest of the world. And a lack of exercise isn’t the only physical problem. Eyesight wanes after long hours in front of a computer screen. Bad posture and body pain can develop from long hours spent sitting, not the least of which is bad circulation in the legs.

Many young people who spend a great of time in front of the computer are beginning to show symptoms of disease and illness not usually seen until someone reaches middle age or senior citizenship.

There are also many upsides to time spent in front of a computer. Young people today are able to log on and talk to their counterparts growing up in other parts of the world. The internet literally opens up the possibilities of world culture them enabling them to understand and to appreciate diversity. Painfully shy people unable to hold a face to face conversations can go online and talk for hours with someone elsewhere in the world, who may be in a similar situation at home.

The internet enables young people to find answers to questions that they may not feel comfortable discussing with their parents and friends and teachers. An example of this might be sex education, which is only given cursory attention in most American schools.

Painfully shy people unable to hold a face to face conversations can go online and talk for hours with someone elsewhere in the world, who may be in a similar situation at home. The internet enables young people to find answers to questions that they may not feel comfortable discussing with their parents and friends and teachers. An example of this might be sex education, which is only given cursory attention in most American schools.

Some studies have even shown that young people who regularly use the computer have better reading skills, spatial skills and visual skills. The one drawback to being on the computer that it is done in isolation, away from the watchful eyes of parents. Some of the information accessed may not be good for young people. The younger mind may not be able to process the information correctly. Parents should keep a watchful eye without seeming to smother their growing child’s independence.

Like all things in life, the internet is a two-edged sword, one edge good, the other edge bad. Parents should use internet access as a teaching tool, helping their youngsters to understand the duplicity involved in life in general including the internet and the world wide web.

The Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW)

Hazrat Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the last prophet of Allah. He was born at Makkah in 571 A.D. His father Abdullah had died before he was born. He was brought up by his mother Amena. Then he was brought up by his loving grandfather. Abdul Muttalib a chief of the Quraish. But when he died after eight years his uncle Abu Talib undertook to look after him. He looked after him more lovingly than his own children. He left no stone unturned to give him all the facilities.

He was named Muhammad (PBUH) and someone asked Hazrat Abdul Mutalib the cause of naming the child Muhammad he replied that one day the whole world will praise his grandson. His hope came true.

A few days after his birth the child was put under the care of a nurse. Hazrat Haleema Saadia. She took him to her desert home and looked after him for four years. The child brought luck and happiness to the family of his nurse. She herself was very happy to bring him up.

Hazrat Muhammad (peace be upon him) grew into a fine boy. He was very kind and gentle. He was loved by the people. His boyhood, as well as his youth, was very pure and pious. People called him Sadiq (truthful) and Amin (honest). From very early life became the symbol of truth and honesty. He was a great example for others.

In his early youth, he earned his good name and fame HazratKhadeeja named Tahira a rich widow of Makkah heard about his great virtues. She asked him to run his business. She was greatly impressed by his fine qualities. She married him when he was 25. She proved to be the most faithful and sincere wife. She stood by him through thick and thin she was 40 at the time of marriage.

When the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was 40 the angel Gabriel brought him the first message of God. He declared that he was a prophet of God. He began to preach Islam. In those days the people of Arabia worshipped idols. They thought that those figures of stone and wood are gods. Many Arabs killed their daughters as soon as they were born. They were always fighting among themselves. They used to drink and gamble. In short, they were in darkness evil had surrounded them. Bloodshed was very common. There was no love at all.

Islam is the religion of peace. The first thing it teaches that is safety and peace. So the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) told the people that idols were not gods. He asked the people to worship the one True God. Their creator. He asked them to give up their bad ways. He asked them not to tell lies not to drink not to gamble and not to bury their daughters alive. He told them the simple ways to lead a better life in this world and the world hereafter.

When the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) started preaching during his period many battles were fought against the infidels. Soon Islam overcame the whole of Arabia.

The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) passed away when he was 63. His sacred tomb is in Madina. He showed the right way to the people of the whole world. He made his followers honest pious kind and truthful. He is the last prophet of Allah.

We can succeed in this world and the world hereafter by following his teachings. His teachings are not only for one Muslim but also for the whole universe.

My Favorite Book

A favourite is the one which is like the most. Different people have different choices. Some likes story books like Detective Novels and other like science and fiction, poetry or prose.

I like reading all sorts of books but my choice for my favourite book is a different one. My favourite book is the HOLY QURAN. It is a heavenly book. The Holy Quran revealed to HOLY PROPHET S.A.W.Basically, it is in the Arabic language but it has been translated at most in every language of the world.

I get satisfaction after reciting it. Every morning I recite the Holy Quran. I like to recite it with its Urdu translation to understand its subject. There is a lot of information on it. Every Muslim has a firm belief in it. It tells us about the life of two worlds.

“The Holy Quran is a complete code of life. One can find a solution to every problem. According to the teaching of it. It not only deals with worldly affair but also with the affairs of the world hereafter”.

It gives us complete guidance. There are clear instructions about our life in the Holy Quran. Every aspect of our life has been completely discussed in detail in it, that is why we can not go against its teachings.

The Holy Quran is the book which is mostly read in the world. Usually, a book is read once or twice but the Holy Quran is read over and over again.t is the only book which, the largest number of people has learnt by heart. They recite it during their prayers and especially during the month of Ramzan. It is the only book which is recited even without knowing its meanings.

“It is the God who taught the use of pen to its creatures and taught them which they knew not.”(Holy Quran)

It is the book which tells us about the reward we can get if we do the good deals and which punishment would be awarded in case of bad deeds. We can get physical as well as spiritual aspirations. In short, the Holy Quran is not only for an individual or for a nation but it is also for a whole universe. It is for everyone. It can bring revolution in man’s life.

“Books are not lifeless things they are powerful agents of good or evil”.

A Football Match

Football is one of the most popular games in the world. It is also one of the oldest games. It is a game of strength and stamina. In terms of popularity, it is as popular as cricket. Comparatively, it is more popular in Europe and Latin America.

Last Sunday, I got an opportunity to witness a football match which was played between Modern School and Central School. The match was played at the playgrounds of Government Boys’ Higher Secondary School.

The entire ground was well decorated and a large number of chairs were arranged for the guests and spectators. Both the teams were well-prepared and confident of their win. The ground was full packed.

The match was to start at 1 p.m. Both the teams entered the ground on scheduled time. After the toss, the referee blew the whistle and the match began. It was expected to be a well-contested and lively match. Both the teams were expecting to score well. During the first few minutes, it was the Modern School who dominated the match. They struck hard to the defences of their rival but failed to score any goal. However, they performed brilliantly and the spectators enjoyed the game.

The captain was very tactful and confident. He was hoping to turn the match in his favour. It was his confidence that instilled new hope and energy in the team. His team was again in high spirit. As a result, it overturned the match and gained control over it which was lost during the mid-hour.

In the meantime, the team scored a goal. The goal was appreciated with thunderous applause. The team was cheered by their supporters. Meanwhile, the right half of the Central School team was badly injured due to which the captain had to play the double role throughout the entire game. Within a few seconds, the first half was declared to be over by the referee.

The players took some rest and refreshments. They drew out strategies to beat their rival. There was a loud noise in the playground. The supporters, rushed to the ground to cheer up the teams.

The match again started with the whistle of the referee. The team of Central School was equipped with strategies to defeat the Modern School. But the players of School were all the more alert particularly their goalkeeper was very tactful. The Modern School made pressure on its rival during the first few minutes, by hitting one after another at the goal of the Central School but the goalkeeper of the rival team was extraordinarily sharp and quick in kicking the goal back. The game became very exciting and thrilling during the last minute.

At one time, the game appeared to be ended in a draw. It caused a morale-boosting to the losing team. There were loud cheers from their supporters. Each of the team was trying its best to win the match. The game was about to over but surprisingly the Central School scored a goal over Modern School. This was a surprising win which caused a great sensation in the ground. There were deafening cheers from its supporters, but the fighting spirit of the opposite team was also being praised by all.

Overall the match was enjoyed greatly by the spectators.

Hazards of Science (This Essay Covers Both Hazards and Benefits of Science)

The last two centuries have seen monumental changes in our lives, brought forth by advancements in science and technology. These advancements have their hazards and benefits in society. It is these negative and positive impacts that this paper will be looking at. Right from the days that men discovered how to make fire, discoveries have come streaming our way at an amazing rate. Telephones, cars, rockets and computers have all been brought by science. Undeniably these inventions have made our lives better and tolerable.

The benefits reaped through the inventions in medicine cannot be underscored or underestimated. It has helped us to cope with our bodies and health in uncountable ways. The benefits of medicine now can enable us to live a full life with the best health possible. Many epidemics in the early days caused immeasurable human sufferings and losses of untold magnitude, and so too could smallpox and polio have done had it not been for science, leading to a discovery of effective vaccinations. Medicine is saving lives and giving patients a second chance to live. Heart surgery and a transplant had always been unimaginable and a patient with a heart ailment was considered to be living his/her last days. This however changed in the 20th century when the first heart transplant was conducted by Bernard. Medicine continues to help us fight deadly diseases while giving us an opportunity to take control of our lives. It is just but a matter of time that pandemics such as AIDS and diabetes will have a cure.

These are just but a few examples of how medicine, occasioned by advents in science and technology, is benefiting our lives. Technology continues to ease communication in a phenomenal way. Looking at how far we have come amazes me even more- from the days of drums and smoke to a completely different era of digital technology where almost everything is done at the touch of a button. Now it is taking only a few seconds to communicate to somebody you are separated with by seas and vast lands. The hallmark of these inventions in the communication sector is the computer.

It has revolutionalized our lives in ways that could not have been imagined before. Storage and retrieval of data have improved a lot, analysis of data and events is only now a matter of seconds. Telegraphs and telefaxes came but now they have been undertaken by the internet and mobile phones. The Internet has also revolutionized research and information access which has become cheaper and fast. Business transactions are now completed at the touch of a key through e-commerce saving a great amount of time.

The entertainment industry has not been left behind, with greater inventions seeking to improve the comfort and luxury of a modern person. Looking also at the citizen security and protection also highlights the benefits of science and technology. It is now possible to predict earthquakes, foul weather and other natural calamities that may befall humanity. This ensures that people raise their level of preparedness. In the energy field, experts are looking into new sources of renewable energy.

With the day to day dangers and risks of ozone layer depletion, a fossil fuel which is the lead cause of environmental depletion could soon be replaced by more clearer and efficient hydrogen, which will be a permanent non-polluting source of energy. It is clear for all to see how the inventions in science and technology continue to benefits society in a great way. However, it is a two-edged razor that also leads to adverse effects in ways that can lead to a miserable end to humanity.

Our world today is trying to grapple with how to cope with the hazards caused by the ever-expanding inventions in science and technology. Developments in the science and technology sector in the last centuries have seen an increase of global warming occasioned by the continued depletion of the ozone later-a thin layer protecting the earth from the harmful radiations of the sun. This is greatly caused by; continued use of fossil fuel, air transportation and green house technology in farming just to mention a few. This has led to a change in climatic patterns, making it unpredictably hazardous to humanity.

The increased cases of earthquakes, droughts, floods and desertification have been attributed to global warming. Another example of the hazards brought forth by science and technology is the improvements of inventions in the art of warfare. The 20th century evidenced major inventions in weaponry used in the first and second world wars. The invention of the ground and ballistic air missiles and most importantly the nuclear and biological warheads transformed warfare to another level. For the first time, human beings were faced with the reality that they could fight themselves to extinction.

This was demonstrated when the United States of America responded to the Pearl Harbor attack by the Japanese. They reiterated by using nuclear bombing the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki expunging thousands of lives and wounding many more. This is a living example of how science and technology can lead to a hazardous end of humans. All in all, many people are on agreement that the few isolated hazards that can result from science and technology cannot water down the benefits arising from the same. A simple cost-benefit analysis indicates that humanity stands to gain more as inventions in science and technology continue to be realized.

Beauties of Nature

Nature is the natural environment which surrounds us, cares us and nourishes us every moment. It provides us with a protective layer around us to prevent from the damages. We are not able to survive on the earth without nature like air, land, water, fire and sky.

Nature includes everything around us like plants, animals, river, forests, rain, lake, birds, sea, thunder, sun, moon, weather, atmosphere, mountain, desserts, hills, ice, etc. Every form of nature is very powerful which has the ability to nourish as well as destroy us.

Now a day, everyone has less time to enjoy nature. In the increasing crowd, we forgot to enjoy nature and improve health. We started using technological instruments for our health fitness. However, it is very true that nature has the power to nourish us and fit us forever.

Most of the writers have described the real beauty and advantage of nature in their writings. Nature has the ability to make our mind tension free and cure our diseases. Because of technological advancement in the life of human being, our nature is declining gradually which needs a high level of awareness to keep it in balance and to conserve natural assets.

God has created everything very beautifully seeing which our eyes can never be tired. But we forgot that we too have some responsibility towards our nature to the relationship between nature and human beings. How beautiful scenery it looks in morning with sunrise, songs of birds, sounds of lakes, rivers, air and happy gatherings of friends in the evening in the garden after a long day of crush. But we forgot to enjoy the beauty of nature in just fulfilling our duties towards our families.

Sometimes during our holidays, we spend our whole day by watching TV, reading the newspaper, playing indoor games or on the computer but we forgot that outside the door we can do something interesting in the lap of nature and natural environment. Unnecessarily we left on all the lights of home, we use electricity without need which ultimately increases the heat in the environment called global warming.

Our other activities like cutting trees and forests increase the amount of CO2 gas in the environment causing greenhouse effect and global warming. If we want to be happy and healthy always we should try our best to save our planet and its beautiful nature by stopping our foolish and selfish activities. In order to keep the ecosystem in balance, we should not cut trees, forests, practice energy and water conservation and many more. Ultimately we are the real user of nature so we should really take care of it.

Is Luxury an Evil

Two diametrically opposite opinions prevail on this question. According to some, all expenditure on luxury is wicked; while, according to others, everyone who buys expensive luxuries thereby encourages trade, and deserves to be extolled as a benefactor of the working classes.

Both of these two opposite views may be supported by plau­sible arguments. When a rich man spends a thousand pounds on a picture, it is not unnatural for his poor neighbour to say: “The money spent on this picture might have supplied me with good food and warm clothes for the rest of my life.”

Or, taking a more comprehensive instance, it may be said that the money spent in the world by the rich on jewellery alone, would probably be enough to purchase large and substantial houses for the poor of all nations, who are now homeless or are crowded in the un­healthy slums of great cities.

Is it not then cruelly selfish for the rich to spend on their luxuries what would be enough to supply the poor with the necessaries of life? Reflections such as these have led many benevolent men to give away in charity all their surplus wealth, only retaining for themselves what is absolutely necessary for their subsistence.

Such men deserve all honour for their conduct and for the noble example of self-sacrifice that they set before the world. But the world would hardly be benefitted if everybody followed their example. If all luxury vanished from the world, mankind would be reduced to the life of savages.

They would be deprived of the pleasures of music, poetry, painting, and the greater part of the earth would be converted into mines, ploughed land, and manufacturing cities full of factories, and with no space left for parks, or flower-gardens, or recreation grounds.

In a world, nothing would be allowed on the face of the earth that merely gave pleasure, and everything would be estimated by the lowest utili­tarian standard. It requires little thought to see that such a state of things would make life intolerable, and degrade men below the even of the brutes.

Let us next consider how much truth there is in the opposite view Does a multi-benefit the labouring classes more by spending two or three thousand pounds in wages to the labourers who paint the walls and ceilings of his princely man­sion, than if we’re to save the money?

The superficial observer sees that the money spent on the decoration of the rooms goes straight into the pockets of a large number of labouring men; whereas the money saved is put into a bank and seems to do no good to anybody but the owner, who presently receives interest from the banker.

A moment’s reflection, however, shows that money saved and invested benefits the labouring class as much as money spent on personal luxuries. Money invested in a railway pays the wages of the workers engaged in the construction of the railway, and money put into a bank is probably lent by the banker to a merchant or manufacturer.

Who without such assistance would not have enough ready money to pay all the labourers he wishes to employ. Thus the miser who saves money benefits the labouring population just as much as the spend-thrift who sur­rounds himself with every kind of luxury.

Political economists go a step further and show that sums of money spent on expensive luxury do not benefit the labouring classes so much as money saved and invested in a company that employs productive labour, and so adds permanently to the wealth of a country.

But this is rather too difficult a question to discuss here. It is enough to have shown on the one hand that all luxury is not an evil, and, on the other hand, that the extravagant man, who squanders his money on expensive luxuries, has no right to regard himself as a benefactor of the poor.

We must, therefore, come to the conclusion that in luxury, as in most other matters, there is a golden mean to be observed. It is quite right that the poor should seek a higher standard of comfort, and try to secure a moderate amount of luxury for themselves and their families.

On the other hand, those rich men who satisfy their excessive love of luxury at the expense of their health and their prosperity, deserve to be severely condemned for their imprudence.

But luxury is often something worse than imprudence. A rich man may by continual indulgence in expensive pleasures come to lose all sympathy with his fellow-men, and excite the bitter hatred of the poor by his ostentatious extravagance.

In this way, he not only becomes a narrow-minded egotist himself, but also, as far as in him lies, embitters the relations between man and man, and helps to make envy, hatred and malice predominate in the world over kindly feelings, sympathy and benevolence. Thus in the great battle of life, he ranges himself on the side of evil against good.

Global Warming

What is global warming? Global warming is the average temperature of Earth has increased since 1950 until now the temperature continuing increasing. Global warming can also refer to climate change that causes an increase in the average temperature. However global warming is caused by natural events and human that are believed to contribute to the increase in average temperatures.

Global warming is a serious issue and is not a single issue but a number of environmental issues. Global warming is a rise in the surface temperature of the earth that has changed various life forms on the earth. The issues that cause global warming are divided into two categories include “natural” and “human influences” of global warming.

The climate has continuously changed for centuries. The global warming happens because of the natural rotation of the sun that changes the intensity of sunlight and moving closer to the earth.

Another cause of global warming is greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide it traps the solar heats rays and prevents it from escaping from the surface of the earth. This has caused the temperature of the earth to increase.

Volcanic eruptions are another issue that causes global warming. For instance, a single volcanic eruption will release the amount of carbon dioxide and ash to the atmosphere. Once carbon dioxide increase, the temperature of earth increase and greenhouse trap the solar radiations in the earth.

Finally, methane is another issue that causes global warming. Methane is also a greenhouse gas. Methane is more effective in trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide by 20 times. Usually methane gas can release from many areas. For instance, it can be from cattle, landfill, natural gas, petroleum systems, coal mining, mobile explosion, or industrial waste process.

Human influence has been a very serious issue now because human does not take care of the earth. A human that cause global warming is more than natural causes of global warming. The earth has been changing for many years until now it is still changing because of modern lifestyle of human. Human activities include industrial production, burning fossil fuel, mining, cattle rearing or deforestation.

The first issue is the industrial revolution. Industrial have been using fossil fuels for power machines. Everything that we use is involved in fossil fuel. For example, when we buy a mobile phone, the process of making mobile phone have involved machines and machines uses fossil fuels, during the process carbon dioxide is releasing to the atmosphere. Besides industrial, transportation such as cars is also releasing carbon dioxide from the exhaust.

Another issue is mining. During the process of mining, the methane will trap below the earth. Besides, rearing cattle will also cause methane because cattle released the form of manure. However, cattle are important because it makes the latter equally responsible for the occurrence of global warming

Next is the most common issue that is deforestation. Deforestation is a human influence because humans have been cutting down trees to produce papers, wood, build houses or more. If human continuing deforestation, carbon dioxide will concentrate in the atmosphere because trees can absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Besides, human also releases carbon dioxide when breathing. Therefore the amounts of millions of people breath have release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. If human continue deforestation, human breathing that release carbon dioxide will stay at the atmosphere.

The greenhouse gases will stay in the atmosphere for many years since hundreds of years ago. However, the effect that global warming will cause on earth is extremely serious. There are many effects that will happen in the future if global warming continues. That includes polar ice caps melting, economic consequences, warmer waters and more hurricanes, the spread of diseases and earthquake

The first effect is the polar ice caps melting. As the temperature increase, the ice at the North Pole will melt. Once the ice melt the first effect will be raise on sea levels because the melting glaciers become oceans. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center “if the ice melted today the seas would rise about 230 feet”. It affects many low lying areas such as the Netherlands. In future, the Netherlands will be cover by water once the North Pole is melted. However, it is not going to happen so fast but the sea level will continue to rise.

Another effect is the species loss of habitat. Species that include polar bears and tropical frogs will be extinct due to climate change. Besides, various birds will migrate to other places because animals are not like humans. They cannot adapt to the habitat that changes their living or temperature.

Next effect is more hurricanes will occur and economic consequences still affect as well. Hurricane causes damage to houses and the government need to spend billions of dollars in damage and people need places to stay or have been killed. Once a disaster happens many people have died and diseases happen. Diseases are more serious because it can spread to other people very fast and more people will get the disease and the disease maybe come more serious because of different weather.

Now there are solutions that we can stop global warming. However, human and governments need to move forward to implement global warming solutions. To reduce global warming we can do to reduce the contribution of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Therefore, the solutions that we can reduce global warming are reducing gasoline, electricity and our activities that cause global warming.

To reduce gasoline mean we have a choice to choose a hybrid car that reduces using gasoline. Besides, the petrol price is increasing. If a person everyday drives to work they need to pump petrol after 3 days and causes carbon dioxide. Another way to reduce gasoline is to take public transport or carpool to work. It can help reduce carbon dioxide and save cost.

Another way to reduce global warming is to recycle. Recycle can reduce garbage by reusing plastic bags, bottles, papers or glass. For instance, when we buy foods, we can use our own containers instead of plastic bags. Another example is after finish drinking the water from the bottle; we can reuse it or use our own bottle. If all this is being reused, a human can reduce deforestation and help save the environment. Besides, turn off electricity if unused. It can save thousands of carbon dioxide and buy a product that has energy saving because it saves cost and saves the environment.

Finally, humans should stop open burning such as burning dry leaves or burning garbage. It will release carbon dioxide and toxic if burning garbage with plastic. Besides, the government should reduce deforestation because earth temperatures are increasing. Trees will help to improve the temperature on earth.

Overall of this assignment, I have understood that our earth is “sick”. We humans need to “heal” the earth. Global Warming has caused many problems for human but we human who make global warming happens. Many people have died because of disease or disaster. It also affects the economics of the country. However, we need to reduce global warming by using less gasoline, recycle and human should help to reduce global warming instead of making the earth temperature increased. Our generation should start taking care of the earth because in the next generation they will suffer if we do not do reduce global warming.

Importance of Forests

Forests are of great importance to any country and mankind as a whole. They contribute significantly to the environment, economic and social well being of the country. The role of more pronounced in a developing country like India, Forests are very important in the viewpoint of ecological balance, agriculture, environment habitat for a large number of plant and animal species and as natural prevention of soil erosion. Forest provides a large number of forest goods like timber, firewood, fruits etc. the list is endless. Forests are home to a large number of tribes. Forests attract tourists. In addition, they play an important role in the carbon cycle and add to the aesthetic beauty of the region.

Forests are vital to the maintenance of a stable environment that is conducive to sustained agricultural production. The forests protect and enrich the soil mantle by checking soil erosion. Nutrient losses the forest brings the mineral nutrients from deep to the topsoil.

The forests are very important for the sustenance of wildlife and they play an important role in the food chain. It plays an important role in the water cycle also. They check the flow of running water and cause to percolate through the soil and increasing underground water level.

Forest-related activities are often a primary source of income for the landless rural families’ collection of timber, firewood and other forest products.

The importance of forests has been realized all over the world now. Large deforestation for timber, for agriculture or dwelling, houses the concern in the mind scale of every vigilant person. In recent times a large number of environment-friendly non-govt organizations have come up in order to protect the forest and environment.

Owing to the numerous benefits and the products of the forests it can be easily stated that forests are one of the invaluable gifts of nature to man. They are an indispensable part of our earth’s ecological system and if the cover of the forest of the earth is not kept intact, the very existence of life on the earth will be at stake.

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7 thoughts on “Solved English Essays (For S.S.T General & S.S.T Science English Part)”

  1. I want to download this past paper solved essay but it didn’t download pleas send me in whatsapp nmbr

    1. sir Bpsc mai jo sst sci k post announce hoye hain onke liye required qualification Bachelors degree in sci with b.ed hai & maine B.E(bachelors of Engineering) with B.ed kia hoa hai.
      so mai sst tech k elawa sst sci k liye apply kr sakonga.

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